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NCERT Solutions For class 12 Biology

Last updated date: 09th Apr 2024
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MVSAT 2024

NCERT Biology Class 12 Free PDF Download

CBSE Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions 2023-24 is available here. These NCERT Solutions will help the students prepare for their Class 12 CBSE Biology exam for the year 2023-24.


NCERT Biology Class 12 Chapter-wise Overview

In CBSE Class 12 Biology, Chapters like Evolution, Genetics, Biotechnology, etc., cover various topics that can be difficult to comprehend for many students, so they tend to skip these chapters. We, at Vedantu, can assure you that with the help of our subject-matter experts, you will be able to understand any chapter of Class 12th Biology easily and will be able to score well in the examinations. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology provided on this page contains solutions that are prescribed for textbooks you use in the CBSE syllabus.

Detailed Overview of Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions


NCERT Solutions for Class 12


Class 12 Biology

Number of Chapters:


Content Type:

Text, Videos, Images and PDF Format

Academic Year:



English and Hindi

Available Materials:

Chapter Wise

Other Materials

  • Important Questions

  • Revision Notes

NCERT Solutions For Biology Class 12 - Chapter at a Glance: A Quick Look at Key Concepts

Class 12 is a crucial phase in students' academic journey as they prepare for higher education and future career paths. To excel in their examinations, it is essential for students to have a comprehensive understanding of the chapters covered in each subject. The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology provide a valuable resource for their studies. Understanding the class 12 Biology Chapters becomes essential for building a strong foundation for future studies.

The chapter at a glance provides a quick overview, highlighting the key topics covered in each Biology Chapter. This helps you to score more in examinations. Prepare with Chapter at a Glance and NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology for better results.

Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions Chapter at a Glance

The concept of ‘Chapter at a Glance For Biology’ provides a concise overview of the chapters in Class 12 Biology, enabling students to grasp the key topics and themes. You can get Class 12 Chapters in a capsule form which Vedantu’s Master Teachers create.

With our meticulously designed solutions, you can delve into concepts such as genetics, ecology, human physiology, and more. Whether you're preparing for exams or aiming to deepen your understanding of the subject, our NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology are your ultimate study companion. Unlock the wonders of biology with ease and excel in your Class 12 examinations. Explore our Chapter at a Glance series today and boost your biology knowledge!

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology | Chapter-wise List

Given below are the chapter-wise NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology. These solutions are provided by the Biology experts at Vedantu in a detailed manner. Go through these chapter-wise solutions to be thoroughly familiar with the concepts.

Competitive Exams after 12th Science

NCERT Solutions for Biology Class 12 | All Chapters

According to the CBSE Board Previous Year Question Papers of 12th Biology, Vedantu suggests that to learn Class 12th Biology NCERT books should be your first priority. The 12th Biology NCERT book covers all the concepts in a concise manner. While going through the Class 12 Biology Chapters, you may face many difficulties in understanding several processes. The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology PDF file available on Vedantu consists of easy explanations of all these concepts. So, download and refer to these NCERT Solutions for effective exam preparation.


Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions

After going through the chapters of Biology 12th NCERT book, students must complete the exercises given at the end of every chapter. Some questions are very tricky, and many of you may need some help answering them. So, Vedantu brings you the NCERT Class 12 Biology Solutions wherein you get precise answers to all the exercise questions of Class 12 Biology. These NCERT Solutions of Biology Class 12 can be downloaded from Vedantu for free of cost.


Chapterwise NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology - Free PDF Download

If you follow the right learning technique, studying biology can be the most comfortable and enjoyable experience for you. In Vedantu, we follow the most effective study techniques to make your learning experience easier. So, there are several chapters in class 12th Biology, and you can access and download the chapter-wise NCERT Solutions for Biology Class 12 PDF for every chapter from Vedantu. The chapters covered in NCERT Solutions are as follows.


Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms

The Reproduction in Organisms chapter involves the procreation process of different organisms. Reproduction is a biological process that results in organisms giving birth to their young ones. This process can be categorized into two types. The first one is asexual reproduction in which the offspring is procreated only by a single parent or without the gamete formation. The second one is sexual reproduction in which two parents of opposite sex procreate through the fusion of female and male gametes. The chapter will explain these concepts in detail through examples and diagrams.


In this chapter, students will learn about the modes of reproduction in different organisms. It will also talk about the various processes involved. Some of the important topics discussed in NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 1 are as follows.

  • Sexual reproduction

  • Asexual reproduction

  • What is Fertilization?

  • Pre-fertilization and post-fertilization events


Explore Study Materials for Class 12 Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms


Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

This chapter focuses on the sexual reproduction in flowering plants along with the structure, morphology, and processes. It further elaborates on concepts like pre-fertilization: Structure and Events, Port fertilization: Structure and Events, Double fertilization, Polyembryony, and Apomixis.


This chapter is very important for Class 12 Boards as it holds a substantial weightage. The important topics that are covered in NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 2 are:

  • Sexual reproduction in flowering plants

  • Structure and morphology of flowering plants

  • Pre-fertilization, double fertilization, and post-fertilization events in flowering plants


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 2 - Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants


Chapter 3: Human Reproduction

In the Human Reproduction chapter, the reproductive events in humans are discussed. This includes gametogenesis (the formation of gametes). Humans become sexually mature after reaching puberty. The reproductive events related to males and females are different. You will be able to examine these differences in this chapter. The sub-topics discussed in this chapter include the female reproductive system, the male reproductive system, fertilization and implantation, menstrual cycle, gametogenesis, embryonic development and pregnancy, lactation, and parturition.


This chapter is important for the Class 12 examination and explains the human reproduction system with diagrams and illustrations in a detailed manner. The important topics from NCERT Class 12 Chapter 3 Biology  are:

  • Reproductive structures

  • Male and female reproductive systems

  • Role of sex hormones

  • Spermatogenesis

  • Gametogenesis


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 3 - Human Reproduction


Chapter 4: Reproductive Health

The previous chapters covered the human reproductive system as well as its functions. In this chapter, a closely related topic is discussed - Reproductive Health. Reproductive health refers to the healthy reproductive organs and their normal functions. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines reproductive health as the total well-being in every aspect of reproduction which includes physical, behavioural, social, and emotional. This chapter will cover subtopics like Reproductive Health - Problems and Strategies, Birth Control, Population Explosion, Medical Termination of Pregnancy, Infertility, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, etc.


The important topics covered under this chapter that are important for Class 12 boards are as follows:

  • Significance of reproductive health

  • Infant mortality 

  • Maternal mortality

  • Amniocentesis

  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases

  • Population Explosion and birth control


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 4 - Reproductive Health


Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Genetics is one of the many branches of Biology. It deals with inheritance and the variance of characters in offspring from their parents. The inheritance process involves the characters passed on from the parents to their progeny. In this chapter, concepts like Mendel’s different Laws of Inheritance, Sex Determination, Inheritance of One Gene or Two Genes, Genetic Disorders, and Mutation are discussed in detail.


Through this chapter, students will be able to understand the concept of genetics and evolution. It will teach you sex determination by chromosomes and how parental traits are inherited by their offspring. The important topics covered under NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 5 are:

  • Mendel’s law of inheritance

  • Inheritance of one gene

  • Inheritance of two genes

  • Mutations

  • Genetic disorders 


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 5 - Principles of Inheritance and Variation


Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance

The previous chapters have covered the inheritance patterns as well as the genetic basis of these patterns. During the time of Mendel, the factors that regulated the inheritance pattern were unclear. However, over the next century, the investigation of the nature of putative genetic material saw great strides. It led to the realisation that Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) is the genetic material for most organisms. Class XI syllabus covered that nucleic acids were polymers of nucleotides. This chapter will cover concepts like the DNA, RNA World, Search for Genetic Materia, Genetic Code, Transcription, Replication, Translation, Human Genome Project, DNA Fingerprinting, and Regulation of Gene Expression.


The important topics covered under NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 6 are as follows:

  • Structure of DNA and polynucleotide chain

  • Packaging of DNA helix

  • Properties of DNA

  • RNA 

  • Types of RNA

  • Regulation of gene expression

  • Process of replication, transcription, and translation

  • Human genome project


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 6 - Molecular Basis of Inheritance


Chapter 7: Evolution

The important topics covered in this chapter are as follows:

  • Origin of life

  • Evolution of life forms

  • Biodiversity on Earth

  • Hardy Weinberg Principle

Evolutionary Biology is the field that studies the history of life on Earth. The Evolution Chapter covers subtopics like Origin of Life, Evolution - A Theory, Evidence for Evolution, Adaptive Radiation, Mechanisms of Evolution, Biological Evolution, Hardy Weinberg principle, Origin and Evolution of Man, etc.


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 7 - Evolution


Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 8 will help the students to know about some common diseases in humans and their prevention. 


Health can be Affected by:

  • Genetic Disorders - Conditions with which a child is born or defects or deficiencies they inherit from their parents.

  • Infections.

  • Lifestyle - Habits that we have, water and food that we consume, exercise and rest that we take.

This chapter will explore topics like Common Diseases in Humans, Drugs, Cancer, AIDS, Alcohol Abuse, and Immunity.

Explore Study Materials for Chapter 8 - Human Health and Diseases


Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Due to population growth, there is an increased need for enhancing the processes of food production. Biological principles that are applied to plant breeding and animal husbandry play an important role in improving the food production process. There are several techniques like tissue culture techniques and embryo transfer technology that can enhance this process even more. The Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production chapter will cover concepts including Tissue Culture, Animal Husbandry, Single Cell Proteins, and Plant Breeding.


This chapter is important to understand various biological principles which are applied in animal husbandry and plant breeding to increase the production of food. The important topics which are covered in this chapter are:

  • Embryo transfer technology

  • Tissue culture techniques

  • Animal Husbandry

  • Plant Breeding


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 9 - Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production


Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare

Apart from macroscopic animals and plants, biological systems have another major component known as microbes. In previous classes, students learned about living organisms and their diversity. Microbes are a diverse group that include bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and microscopic plant and animal viruses. Microbes like many fungi and bacteria can grow on nutritive media and form colonies that are visible to the naked eye. These cultures are very useful while studying microorganisms. In this chapter, topics like Microbes in Industrial Products, Microbes in Household Products, Microbes in Biogas Production, Microbes in Sewage Treatment, Microbes as Biofertilizers, and Microbes in Biocontrol Agents are explained thoroughly.


NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 is important to learn about various diseases which are caused by microbes. Along with this, the chapter also focuses on some of the microbes which are harmless and beneficial to humans.


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 10 - Microbes in Human Welfare


Chapter 11: Biotechnology Principles and Processes

Biotechnology is a field that deals with the process of using enzymes from organisms or live organisms for producing processes and products that are useful to humans. According to the definition provided by the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB), biotechnology encompasses traditional views as well as modern molecular biotechnology. It is the integration of organisms, cells, and molecular analogues and natural science for services and products. This chapter will cover concepts like Principles of Biotechnology, Recombinant DNA Technology tools and processes, etc.


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 11 - Biotechnology Principles and Processes

Chapter 12: Biotechnology: and Its Application

In the previous chapters, there were concepts covering the industrial-scale production of biologicals and biopharmaceuticals using genetically modified animals, plants, fungi, and microbes. This chapter covers the applications of biotechnology, including diagnostics, therapeutics, genetically modified crops used for agriculture, waste treatment, energy production, bioremediation, and processed food. It also includes concepts like Biotechnical Applications in Medicine and Agriculture, Transgenic Animals, Ethical Issues, etc.


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 12 - Biotechnology: and its Application


Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations

The previous chapters have covered that Ecology involves studying how organisms interact with one another, other organisms, and the physical environment. This chapter involves discussions on biological organisation’s four levels - organisms, populations, biomes, and communities. The Ecology at the population and organismic levels are explained in detail. It also includes concepts like Organisms and their Environment and Populations.


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 13 - Organisms and Populations


Chapter 14: Ecosystem

An Ecosystem can be considered as nature's functional unit where organisms live and interact with each other as well as the surrounding physical environment. The Ecosystem chapter will begin with discussing the ecosystem structure. This will help in understanding the input, transfer of energy, and output. Next comes the relationships that are created because of the energy flows in the system and the inter-relationship, including webs, chains, and cycles. The chapter covers subtopics like Structure and Function of Ecosystem, Decomposition, productivity, Energy Flow, Ecological Succession, Ecological Pyramids, Ecosystem Services, and Nutrient Cycling.


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 14 - Ecosystem


Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation

The Biodiversity and Conservation chapter covers topics like Species diversity, Genetic diversity, Ecological Diversity, Patterns of Diversity, Loss of Biodiversity, Different types of Species, Biodiversity Conservation, etc. The conservation of Biodiversity might be in situ or ex-situ. In the case of situ conservation, the species that are endangered receive protection in their natural habitat in order to ensure the protection of the entire ecosystem. In ex-situ conservation, the threatened species are protected in botanical gardens and zoological parks through cryopreservation of gametes, tissue culture propagation, and in vitro fertilization.


The important topics covered in this chapter are:

  • Importance and significance of biodiversity

  • Types of Biodiversity

  • Evolution, degradation, and conservation

  • Genetic diversity

  • Species diversity

  • Latitudinal gradients

  • Species area relationship

  • Causes of biodiversity losses

  • In-situ conservation and ex-situ conservation


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 15 - Biodiversity and Conservation


Chapter 16: Environmental Issues

This chapter focuses on all the environmental issues caused due to pollution and global warming. This is an important chapter that will teach the students the proper utilisation of our resources.


Over the last hundred years, the size of the human population has increased exponentially. This has put pressure on natural resources. With the increased demand for water, food, home, roads, electricity, automobiles, and other commodities, there have been some undesirable changes. One such change is Pollution. Pollution is a negative change in the physical, biological, or chemical characteristics of air, water, soil, or land. The agents causing this undesirable change are known as pollutants. This chapter will cover subtopics like Air Pollution, Water Pollution, Radioactive Wastes, Solid Wastes, Greenhouse Effect, Global Warming, Agrochemicals and their effects, Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere, Deforestations, and Degradation caused by Improper Utilization and Maintenance of Resources.


Explore Study Materials for Chapter 16 - Environmental Issues


CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus Course Structure 2023-24





Reproduction: Chapter – 2, 3 and 4



Genetics and Evolution: Chapter – 5 and 6, 7



Biology and Human Welfare: Chapter – 8 and 10



Biotechnology and its Applications: Chapter – 11 and 12



Ecology and Environment Chapter 13 and 15





CBSE Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions 2023-24 - Benefits of NCERT Solutions

CBSE Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions have its own advantages when it comes to preparing the students of CBSE Class 12 Biology:

  • It Is useful for quick revision of all the chapters before exams.

  • It gives an in-depth understanding of complex topics covered in the syllabus.

  • It helps to achieve good grades in exams.

  • The solutions are designed by experts as per the CBSE latest guidelines.

  • They are available online on Vedantu’s official website free of cost.


CBSE Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions 2023-24 - Topics Covered

  • Principles of Inheritance and Variations

  • Reproduction in organisms

  • Microbes in Human Welfare

  • Evolution

  • Biotechnology


Detailed Analysis of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

When it comes to CBSE, NCERT textbooks are a gold mine. They are simple and straightforward in explaining the concepts. The questions have been designed in a way to test students’ conceptual understanding. In the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology, they can find all the information along with basic concepts to prepare not only for the board exam but also for medical entrance exams such as NEET.


CBSE Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions 2023-24 - Learn effectively with Vedantu 

Not only for the Science stream, but Vedantu also provides study materials for all subjects and every class. All the materials are written in the most straightforward language to facilitate an easy understanding among the students. Our experts also conduct live classes, lectures and provide study materials for other entrance exams like NEET, JEE, etc.


Even during the session, if you feel that you are not comfortable or that you are facing any problem with our solutions or need help in solving any other concepts or doubts, you are free to ask without any hesitation. Our experts will always be available for you until all your doubts are cleared.


CBSE Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions 2023-24 - Extra Questions for Practice 

  1. What is Sponge’s asexual reproductive structure?

  2. Monohybrid cross involves independent assortment. True or false?

  3. What is the difference between the Menstrual cycle and the Oestrus cycle?

  4. Explain the following:

    1. Scutellum

    2. Apomixis

  5. What is the development process for microspores in angiosperms?

  6. What is the hormone that women produce during pregnancy?

  7. What is the difference between incomplete dominance and codominance?

  8. Name the scientist who rediscovered Mendel’s laws.

  9. What will happen when YyRr is crossed with a wrinkled pea plant? Explain with a diagram.

  10. What is mutagen? Explain using an example.

  11. What is MTP?

  12. Define menarche.

  13. Draw a diagram of the seminiferous tubule and label it.

  14. Which fallopian tube’s part is closest to the ovary?

  15. After fertilisation, what happens to Synergids?

  16. Draw anatropous ovule and label its parts.

  17. What is the difference between geitonogamy, autogamy, and xenogamy?

  18. What do we call the gamete mother cells present in diploid organisms?

  19. What is the cross-pollination process in plants?


Related Important Links for CBSE Class 12 Biology

Also check following pages to ace your learnings.

FAQs on NCERT Solutions For class 12 Biology

1. What is Metastasis?

It is a phenomenon through which tumour cells spread to different body parts via the circulatory system.

2. How Much do I have to Pay for Accessing the NCERT 12th Bio Solutions?

You do not have to pay for the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology, and you can simply download the PDF file from Vedantu for free.

3. What is Phylogenetics?

It is the study of evolutionary relationships among individuals of a different group of organisms.

4. Is the NCERT Books for Class 12 Biology the best reference guide for the students?

Most of the teachers and students use the NCERT Books for teaching and studying respectively. NCERT books are the best reference guide for Class 12 Biology. One of the ways to make the study more efficient is to follow the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology provided by Vedantu. The Vedantu guide offers solutions that are unique and provided by the subject matter experts. As these solutions highlight the CBSE Guidelines, all the topics and significant concepts are covered.

5. Where can I get the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology online?

Most of the students tend to reach out to online sources for the solutions of the NCERT Textbook. Vedantu offers the PDF of the solutions for each chapter online. According to the necessities, you can also download the PDF for free and refer to it while studying offline. As Vedantu provides a solution for all the exercises mentioned in NCERT, if you are stuck while solving a problem, you can easily refer to these solutions online on Vedantu website or on Vedantu app.

6. How many chapters are there in Biology Class 12 NCERT?

Overall, there are 16 chapters in the NCERT for Class 12 Biology. Vedantuoffers solutions in PDF for each chapter. The students can download it for free. The Vedantu Solutions cover a wide range of concepts and the answers are in a simple language for the students to understand efficiently. These solutions are verified by the subject-matter-experts and are provided in a step-by-step manner. Vedantu’s guide also follows the guidelines set by the CBSE Board.

7. Is Class 12 Biology difficult?

As Biology is composed of more theoretical concepts, most of the students may find it challenging to learn the significant terms and processes. Most of the students avoid studying chapters like Biotechnology, Evolution, Genetics and more as they find it difficult to understand. The subject matter experts at Vedantu ensure the students with their verified answers and simple understanding of the processes and terms. With the right learning method and few tricks, any student can score high in Class 12 Biology.

8. Is NCERT Biology enough for NEET?

As the syllabus for NEET is covered in the NCERT, referring to the NCERT Textbook should be the highest priority for the students aiming for NEET. However, it is not enough for the complete preparation of NEET. To overcome this problem, Vedantu conducts live sessions where the experienced subject matter experts take classes and provide the students with essential reading materials. The students are free to ask any doubts or the concepts they need help with understanding.