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Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Class 12 Notes CBSE Biology Chapter 2 (Free PDF Download)

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Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 2 (Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants) - Free PDF Download

The subject of Biology revolves around the study of various organisms including the human body. It helps the students in getting in-depth knowledge about the life systems of these organisms. Class 12 revision notes chapter 2 provide a detailed and in-depth description of the sexual reproduction process in flowering plants. 

Class 12 notes Sexual reproduction in flowering plants, have been prepared by the experts at Vedantu per the updated syllabus and aim to help the students in preparing well for their exams. 


Download CBSE Class 12 Biology Notes 2023-24 PDF

Also, check CBSE Class 12 Biology revision notes for other chapters:


CBSE Class 12 Biology Notes

Chapter 1- Reproduction in Organisms

Chapter 2 - Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Chapter 3 - Human Reproduction

Chapter 4 - Reproductive Health

Chapter 5 - Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Chapter 6 - Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Chapter 7 - Evolution

Chapter 8 - Human Health and Disease

Chapter 9 - Strategies for Enhancement in Food production

Chapter 10 - Microbes in Human Welfare

Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Chapter 12 - Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter 13 - Organisms and Populations

Chapter 14 - Ecosystem

Chapter 15 - Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 16 - Environmental Issues


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Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Class 12 Notes Biology - Basic Subjective Questions


Section–A (1 Mark Questions)

1. A dithecous anther consists of ______ microsporangia, _____ in each lobe.

Ans. A dithecous anther consists of four microsporangia, two in each lobe.


2. What is the function of the filiform apparatus of the embryo sac?

Ans. The filiform apparatus helps in guiding the entry of the pollen tube into the embryo sac.


3. Give an example of a water-pollinated plant?

Ans. Vallisneria


4. What are parthenocarpic fruits?

Ans. Parthenocarpic fruits are those that develop without the process of fertilization, e.g., Banana. 


5. Which part of the gynoecium receives the pollen grain?

Ans. Stigma is the terminal receptive part of the pistil which functions as a landing platform for the pollen grains. 


Section–B (2 Mark Questions)

6. Arrange the following in correct developmental sequence: Male gamete, Potential pollen mother cell, sporogenous tissue, Pollen grains, Microspore tetrad.

Ans. The correct developmental sequence is:
Sporogenous tissue → Potential pollen mother cell → Microspore tetrad → Pollen grain → Male gamete.


7. What kind of structures are formed at the end of microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis?

Ans. Microsporogenesis results in the formation of microspores which are arranged in a cluster of four cells–the microspore tetrad. Each microspore dissociates from the other and develops into pollen grains. Megasporogenesis leads to the formation of four megaspores that are arranged in a linear tetrad.


8. Why pollen grains can remain well preserved as fossils?

Ans. The outer layer, exine of the pollen grains is made up of a chemical called sporopollenin. Pollen grains are well-preserved as fossils because of the presence of sporopollenin.  It is one of the most resistant organic materials which can withstand high temperatures, strong acids, and alkalies. No enzymes have been reported so far that can degrade this chemical. 


9. State any one advantage and disadvantage of pollen grains to humans.

Ans. Advantage: Pollen grains are rich in nutrients and therefore, pollen tablets are used as food supplements. A large number of pollen products in the form of tablets and syrups are available in the market.
Disadvantage: In some people, pollens of many species cause severe allergies and bronchial afflictions leading to chronic respiratory disorders such as bronchitis, asthma, etc.


10. Why is emasculation done in the process of artificial hybridization?

Ans. Emasculation is the removal of anthers from the flower bud before the anther matures. This is done to ensure that no undesirable pollens fall on the stigma and the flower can be pollinated with the desired pollen grains.


11. Why are cleistogamous flowers invariably autogamous?

Ans. In cleistogamous flowers, the flower never opens. In such flowers, the anthers and stigma lie close to each other. When anthers dehisce in the flower buds, pollen grains fall on the stigma to effect pollination. Thus, cleistogamous flowers are invariably autogamous as there is no chance of cross-pollen landing on the stigma. 


PDF Summary - Class 12 Biology Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Notes (Chapter 2)

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

• Sexual reproduction is the process by which new organisms are formed from the fusion of male and female gametes from two parents.

• The flower is the primary reproductive structure. Within the flowers, the reproductive organs, or sporophylls, are produced.

• Sporophylls are classified into two types: microsporophylls (stamen) and megasporophylls (carpel). 

• A carpel is an ovary that contains an ovule, a style, and a stigma.

• There are three types of stamen: filament, anther, and connective.

• Stamen is distinguished as filament, anther and connective.

• Sexual reproduction in flowering plants can be broken down into three steps:

i) Pre-fertilization 

ii) Double fertilization 

iii) Post-fertilization 


Pre-Fertilization: Structure and Events

The following pre-fertilization events can be studied: 

i) Pollen grain formation 

ii) Embryo sac formation 

iii) Pollination

iv) Pollen pistil interaction 


Pollen Grain Formation 

Male reproductive unit (Stamen) 

• A stamen is an angiosperm's male reproductive unit. It is composed of an anther and a filament. The anther is bilobed, with each lobe containing four pollen sacs or microsporangia. 

• A number of pollen grains are contained in each pollen sac. A dithecous anther's four pollen sacs are located in the four corners.

• Dithecous anther: An anther with two lobes connected by a non-sporangious tissue called the connective. 

• The anther wall is composed of four layers of cells.

• To release pollen grains, anther dehiscence through slits.


Anther Development 

• The development of an anther begins with a mass of homogeneous meristematic cells surrounded by an epidermis.

• Four lobes are formed, as are four layers of archesporial cells.

• Archesporial cells: A primitive cell or group of primitive cells that divide to form two types of cells: a primary parietal cell and a primary sporogenous cell.

• The parietal cell divides several times to form the anther wall, whereas the sporogenous cell divides less frequently to form microspores or the pollen mother cells (PMC).

• The tapetum is the innermost layer of the cell wall that comes into contact with the PMCs. In pollen formation, the tapetum plays a crucial role.

• Tapetum: This is a tissue found within the anther that feeds the growing spores.

• The endothecium is the layer beneath the epidermis.


Anther development

Wall Layers of Anther

• The epidermis is a single layer of cells that serves as a protective layer.

Endothecium is a single-layered second wall. Cells are thickened with cellulose and a trace of pectin and lignin. It aids in the dehiscence of anthers.

Middle layers – Ranges from 1-6. When the anther matures, the middle layer degenerates.

Tapetum – 

a) The anther wall's innermost layer surrounding the sporogenous tissue.

b) Tapetal cells contain nutrients.

c) They have multiple nuclei and are polyploid.

d) The ubisch bodies settle in the exine of the microspore wall.

e) There are two kinds of tapetum:

(i) Secretary / glandular – The tapetal cells remain in place throughout the development of the microspore, eventually degenerating.

(ii) Amoeboid / periplasmodial – The tapetal cells rupture the radial wall, allowing the protoplast to enter the pollen chamber. These protoplasts are now joining together to form the periplasmodium. 


Microsporogenesis 

• Microsporogenesis is the formation and differentiation of microspores.

• PMCs go through meiosis. Tetrahedral tetrads are formed by each.

• Cytokinesis can be either sequential or simultaneous.

• Tetrads are classified into five types: tetrahedral, isobilateral, decussate, T-shaped, and linear. The most common shape is tetrahedral.

• The cell wall is formed after meiosis –I and meiosis –II in successive types, resulting in an isobilateral pollen tetrad. Monocots have it as a distinctive trait.

• In the simultaneous type, each nuclear division in a microspore mother cell is followed by the formation of a cell wall.


Microsporogenesis

The tetrahedral arrangement is separated from the microspores. After that, they are surrounded by a two-layered wall. The outer wall is known as the exine, and the inner wall is known as the intine.

• The pollen grains are the male gametophyte's first cells. 

• The tapetum is depleted, and the anther becomes a dry structure. The pollen is liberated by the anther dehiscence.

• A tetrad's four nuclei remain functional to form four microspores.

• In some cases, all four pollen remain attached, forming compound pollen grains, as in Juncus jatropha. 

• Microspores are present as pollinium in the Asclepiadaceae and Orchidaceae families.

Pollinium: A mass of pollen grains found on each anther lobe. The entire mass of pollen grains is transferred as a unit when the pollinium is attached to pollinating agents such as insects.


Pollen Grain 

• Pollen grains come in all forms and sizes.

• It is generally round and has a diameter of 25 – 30m.

• The pollen grain has a haploid, unicellular body with a single nucleus. It has a two-layered exterior wall.

• The wall, or sporoderm, is made up of two layers.

• The outer layer is quite thick. It is known as the exine. It is composed of sporopollenin. • The inner wall is thin and is referred to as the intine. It is composed of pecto-cellulose.

• Exine can be thick and sculptured or smooth. It is cuticularised, and the cutin is sporopollenin, which is resistant to chemical and biological decomposition. This keeps the pollen wall intact for a long time. It also contains proteins that are involved in enzymatic and compatibility reactions.

• Exine is classified as inner endexine and outer ektexine. The ektexine is further subdivided into three layers: the inner continuous foot layer, the middle discontinuous baculate layer, and the outermost discontinuous tectum.

• Tectum aids in pollen grain identification and classification by family, genus, or species.

• Pollen grain has pores or furrows in it. The exine is not present in these areas. Germ pores are formed when the areas are circular. Germ furrows are formed when the areas are elongated.

• Intine is a thin and pliable material. It is composed of cellulose and pectin. The intine extends out to form the pollen tube during pollen germination. 

• The pollen grains’ cytoplasm is high in starch and unsaturated oils. They begin to uninucleate and eventually become 2-3 celled.

• In Calotropis and orchids, the pollen of each anther lobe formed a characteristic mass known as pollinium. 

• Pollen grains are classified as monoclopate (with one germ pore), biclopate (with two germ pores), or triclopate (with three germ pores).

• The study of pollen is termed palynology.


Development of Male Gametophyte 

• Inside the pollen grain, the nucleus grows in size. It divides mitotically to give rise to two unequal daughter cells: a larger vegetative cell or tube cell and a smaller generative cell.

• Pollination can take place when the pollen grain is two-celled (tube + generative) or three celled (tube + two male gametes).

• In plants, however, such as cereals, male gametes form while the pollen is still within the anther. When pollen is shed at the two-celled stage, the generative cell divides after the pollen has landed on the stigma.

• The generative cell's cytoplasm contains little conserved food material, while the vegetative cell's cytoplasm includes fat, carbohydrate, and protein granules.


Pollen Products 

1. Pollen supplements: Pollen grain is high in carbohydrates and unsaturated fat. They are taken in the form of tablets and syrups and are used to improve vital body functions. Pollen consumption boosts performance and is used by athletes as well as racehorses.

2. Pollen creams: Pollen grains provide UV protection. As a result, they are used in creams and emulsions to provide skin smoothness and protection.


Pollen Viability 

• Pollen viability refers to the amount of time that pollen grains remain viable or functional. 

• It is estimated by temperature and humidity.

• For 30 minutes, pollen grains are viable.


Pollen allergy

• Pollen grains cause severe allergies. It causes fever as well as common respiratory disorders such as asthma and bronchitis.

• Carrot grass (Parthenium hysterophorus) is a major allergen source. It also harms the internal organs of the body. It arrived in India alongside imported wheat. 


Female Reproductive Unit (Pistil)

• The female reproductive unit of a flower is the pistil or gynoecium.

• A carpel or pistil is made up of three parts: the stigma, the style, and the ovary.

• Stigma: The part of the body that receives pollen grains.

• The stalk that connects the stigma to the ovary is known as the style.

• Ovary: A swollen region at the base of the ovary. One to several ovules is found in the ovary.

• The ovule is a megasporangium surrounded by integuments. The ovule matures into a seed after fertilization. It is oval and whitish in colour.

• Funiculus: The stalk that joins the ovule and the placenta together.

• Hilum: The point at which the funicle attaches to the ovule.

• The fusion of the funiculus with the body of the ovule results in the formation of a raphe (ridge). 

• The nucellus is a parenchymatous tissue that is equivalent to the megasporangium. The nucellus can be thin or thick.

• When the nucellus is thin, it is referred to as tenuinucellate, as in the Compositae family. 

• When the nucellus is massive, it is referred to as crassinucellate, as in the Casuarinaceae family. Ovules are classified into the following types based on the number of integuments:

(i) Unitegmic – Using only one integument. It can be found in higher dicots such as Compositae and gymnosperms.

(ii) Bitegmic: ovules have two integuments. It can be found in monocots and primitive dicots such as the Cruciferae and Malvaceae).

(iii) Tritegmic – Three integuments, as in Asphodelus; 

(iv) Ategmic – No integument. Santalum, Loranthus, Ziriosoma, and Olax are examples of this.

• Chalaza refers to the origin of integuments.

• At the opposite end of the integuments from the chalazal end, there is a pore. Micropyle is the term for it.

• The developing embryo sac may be nourished by the inner region of the integument. It is known as endothelium.

• Cuticle covers the outer region of each integument and the nucellus.

• The integumentary cells of the castor bean (Ricinus) proliferate at the microplylar region. This results in a structure known as the caruncle. It serves two purposes

i. It absorbs water and promotes seed germination.

ii. Because it is made of a sugary substance, ants disperse the seeds.


female reproductive unit of a flower

Note: Recreated the above diagram


Forms of Ovule 

• Orthotropous (Erect): The ovule's body is straight and lies directly over the funicle. Hilum, chalaza, and micropyle all share the same phylogenetic line. Polygonum, for example.

• Anatropous (Inverted): The ovule's body is inverted. The ovule and the funicle are joined. The raphe is formed by the fusion of the ovule and the funicle. The funicle is close to Hilum and Micropyle. The chalaza is located on the opposite end of the micropyle. It is the most common ovule type. As an example, consider the plant Ranunculus.

Hemianatropous: - The ovule body is at a right angle to the funicle, as in Malpighiaceae.

Campylotropous: The body is curved, but the embryo sac is straight. Hilum, chalaza, and micropyle are found nearby. For example, Caspells, Capparis, Chenopodiaceae 

Amphitropous: Both the ovule body and the embryo sac are curved, as in crucifers.

Circinotropous: The ovule rotates at a greater than 360o angle, causing the funicle to coil around the ovule. Consider the plant Opuntia.


Megasporogenesis

• Megasporogenesis refers to the process of producing megaspores from megaspore mother cells.

• Ovules commonly form a single megaspore mother cell (MMC) in the nucellar micropylar region. It's a big cell with a lot of cytoplasms and a big nucleus.

• The MMC goes through meiosis to produce four megaspores.

• In most flowering plants, only one of the megaspores is active. The other three have devolved.

• Only the functional megaspore can mature into a female gametophyte.

• Monosporic development refers to the formation of an embryo sac from a single megaspore.


Formation of Embryo SAC 

• Mitosis occurs in the nucleus of the functional megaspore, resulting in the formation of two nuclei. They shift to opposing poles. As a result, a two-nucleate embryo sac is formed.

• There are two more sequential mitotic nuclear divisions. This results in the formation of four nucleate and then eight nucleate embryo sac stages. 

• Cell wall development does not occur immediately after nuclear division.

• Cell walls are formed after the eighth nucleate stage. This results in the formation of a typical female gametophyte or embryo sac. Six of the eight nuclei are encased in cell walls and organized into cells. The remaining two nuclei are known as polar nuclei. 

• They are found in the large central cell, just beneath the egg apparatus. • Three cells are found together at the micropylar end. They make up the egg apparatus.

• The egg apparatus comprises two synergids and one egg cell. Filiform apparatus are special cellular thickenings at the micropylar tip found in synergids. They are crucial in directing pollen tubes into the synergid. Three cells are placed at the chalazal end. They are known as antipodals. At maturity, a typical angiosperm embryo sac has seven cells and eight nuclei.


Pollination 

• Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the flower's stigma.

• Pollination can be categorised into two different types, namely: self-pollination and cross-pollination.

• Self-pollination refers to the transfer of pollen grains from anthers to stigmas of the same or different flowers on the same plant. Flowers in self-pollination are genetically similar.

Self-pollination is of two kinds- autogamy and geitonogamy.

1. Autogamy: The movement of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of the same flower. It is preferred because of the following adaptations:

a) Chasmogamous apparatuses 

• When the mature anther and stigma of the flower are exposed to pollinating agents. The stigma in Lilac is directly beneath the anthers.

b) Cleistogamy 

• Because the flowers remain closed, self-pollination is the only option. Pisum, Lathyrus, and Commelina benghalensis are a few examples.

• Bisexual flowers mature their anthers and stigma well before the bud opens. Thus, self-pollination occurs during the bud stage of plants such as peas and wheat.


2. Geitonogamy is the transfer of pollen grain from one flower's anther to the stigma of another flower of the same or genetically similar plant.

The benefits of self Pollination are shown below.

• It preserves the race's purity.

• There is no need for the plant to produce a large number of pollen grains.

• It ensures seed production.

• Self-pollination eliminates undesirable recessive traits.

Self-pollinated plants have a number of disadvantages as shown below.

• Variable, which reduces adaptability to changing environments.

• Vitality declines, eventually leading to degeneration.


Cross-Pollination

• It is defined as the transfer of pollen grains from an anther of one plant to the stigma of another plant of the same or different species. It is also referred to as allogamy.

• Pollination occurs in Xenogamy between two flowers of plants that are genetically and ecologically distinct.


Cross-Pollination Devices

1. Dicliny: Flowers are classified into two types: male and female. Plants could be either monoecious or dioecious.

2. Dichogamy: It occurs when the anther and stigma mature at different times.

(i) Protandry: Anthers mature at a faster rate. For example, Salvia, Clerodendron, Sunflower, and Rose.

(ii) Protogyny: Stigmas mature at a younger age. Plantago, Magnolia, and Mirabilis are a few examples.

3. Self-sterility: Tobacco and some crucifers, for example, have pollen grains that are incapable of growing over the stigma of the same flower. Prepotency refers to a pollen grain's ability to grow faster on the stigma of another plant than on the stigma of the same plant ( e.g. apple)

4. Heterostyly: The styles and stamens are at different heights within the flowers. Primula and Jasminum have two types of flowers (dimorphic heterostyly), pin-eye (long style and short stamen) and thrum-eye (long style and short stamen) (short style and long stamens). Some plants, such as Lathyrum and Oxalis, have trimorphic (3) heterostyly.

5. Herkogamy: Self-pollination is prevented by the existence of a natural or physical barrier between androecium and gynoecium.


Advantages of Cross-Pollination 

• Cross-pollination causes genetic recombination and, as a result, variation in offspring.

• Cross-pollination improves the ability of offspring to adapt to environmental changes.

• The race's defective character is eliminated and replaced by a better character. 


Disadvantages of Cross-Pollination 

• Plants must generate a large number of pollen grains.

• The very good character will most likely be spoiled.

• Because an external agency is involved, the chance factor is always present.


Agents of Pollination: 

Anemophily (wind pollination) Characteristics 

• Pollen grains are very light in weight. They could have an air sac or wings.

• Flowers are small, colourless, and odourless.

• The pollen grains are completely dry.

• Anthers have a long filament and are plentiful.

• Stigmas are sticky and feathery in texture.

Mulberry, Date palm, grass, coconut, willow, maize, jowar, cannabis are some examples.

Hay fever is a kind of allergic reaction because of the presence of pollen in the air. 


Characteristics of Hydrophily (water pollination)

• The flowers are small, colourless, odourless, and nectarless and the stigma is long, sticky, and unpalatable.


Water Pollination is of Two Types -

(a) Epihydrophily is a type of hydrophilia (on the surface of water e.g. Vallisneria)

(b) Hypohydrophily (inside the water), for example, Zostera and Ceratophyllum.

Pollen grains lack exine and are frequently elongated. Vallisneria is a dioecious plant. Male plants produce a large number of male flowers, which after breaking rise upwards in a closed state and open on the water's surface. The female plant produces flowers that float on the surface of the water thanks to long pedicels. After pollination, the female flower is submerged in water.


Entomophily (Insect pollination) Characteristics 

• The flowers have been coloured. Bees are drawn to bluish-purplish – violet – yellow flowers, while butterflies and wasps are drawn to reddish flowers.

• Flowers frequently have an aroma or scent.

• Insects that come to visit are fed by either nectar or pollen.

• Pollen grains are sticky as a result of pollenkitt, and stigmas are sticky as well.


Ornithophily (Bird pollination) 

• Bird pollination is common in coral trees, bottlebrush trees, and silk-cotton trees.

• Sunbirds and hummingbirds are two types of long-beaked small birds that aid in pollination.

• Other birds include the Bulbul, parrot, and crow.

• Ornithophilous flowers are large and robust, with copious nectar and edible parts. For instance, Bombax, Agave, Butea, and Bignonia. 


Chiropterophily (Pollination by bats) 

• They pollinate large, dull-coloured flowers with a strong aroma. 

• Chiropterophilous flowers produce more pollen grains and secrete more nectar than orinthophilous flowers.

• In Adansonia and Kigelia, bats pollinate the flowers. 


Malacophily (pollination by snails) 

• Snails pollinate Arisaema (snake orcobra plants) and some arum lily species. 


Myrmecophily (pollination by ants) 

• Myrmecophily refers to ant pollination of flowers. Myrmecophytes are plants that are pollinated by ants. Some members of the Rubiaceae family are examples. 


Significance of Pollination 

• Pollination is required for fertilization and, as a result, seed and fruit production. 

• It promotes ovarian growth.

• It leads to the creation of hybrid seeds.

• The seeds and fruits are also nutritious. 


Post Pollination Events 

• The pollen grain's nucleus divides to produce vegetative and generative cells, and a small protrusion known as a germ tube emerges from the pollen. The germ tube secretes enzymes that digest the stigma tissues. The germ tube then develops into a pollen tube. 

• The generative nucleus divides to produce two male nuclei. They are surrounded by cytoplasmic masses and appear as distinct male gametes. The pollen tube develops into the style tissues after passing through the stigma.

• The region of entry of the pollen tube into the ovule determines the type of entry.

They are as follows:

i) Porogamy: The entry of a pollen tube into an ovule via a micropyle, as in Ottelia.

ii) Chalazogamy: The entry of a pollen tube into an ovule via a chalaza, such as Casuarina.

iii) Mesogamy: Pollen tube entry into the ovule via the funicle or integuments, as in Cucurbita.

• The pollen tube usually enters the ovule via the micropyle. It then enters the synergids via the filiform apparatus. 

• Filiform apparatus directs pollen tube entry. 


Pollen – Pistil Interaction 

• Only compatible pollen from the same species can germinate. 

• Germination is linked to the action of proteins found on pollen grains and stigma that determine compatibility.

• By manipulating pollination, plant breeders can create hybrids between different species.

• Female parents with bisexual flowers use forceps to remove anthers from the flower bud before the anther dehisces. 

• The stigma of the emasculated flowers must be protected from contamination by unwanted pollen during this step, which is known as emasculation. As a result, they are covered with a suitable-sized bag to prevent the deposition of unwanted pollen. The bag is generally made up of butter paper. This process is called bagging. 


Double Fertilization 

• Fertilization is defined as the process by which male and female gametes fuse to form the zygote. 

• The zygote will eventually mature into an embryo. Two male gametes are released into the embryo sac by the pollen tube. The diploid zygote is formed when one of the male gametes fuses with the egg. This is known as syngamy or generative fertilization. The second male gamete joins the two polar nuclei. This leads to the formation of a triploid primary endosperm nucleus. This is known as triple fusion, and it is also referred to as vegetative fertilization.

• Two sexual fusions occur in an embryo sac, one in syngamy and the other in triple fusion. This is known as double fertilization.


Post Fertilization: Structure and Events 

Endosperms 

• Endosperm is a nutritive tissue that develops as a result of vegetative fertilization. The endosperm is intended to nourish the embryo. It is typically triploid.

• The effects of genes from the male gamete may be seen in the endosperm. The condition is known as xenia. This happens because the endosperm in a mature ovule is fully developed.

• The direct or indirect effect of pollen on embryo sac structure is limited to the endosperm and is not observed in the embryo. Focke (1881) described this effect. It is only found in Zea mays (maize). 

Metaxenia is the action of pollen on the seed coat or pericarp that is outside the embryo sac.

The endosperm is classified into three types based on how it develops.

1. Nuclear endosperm 

• Through repeated mitosis, the primary endosperm nucleus generates a large number of free nuclei.

• The large multinucleate cytoplasm is then pushed to the periphery by the formation of a central vacuole.

• Walls form later, and the central vacuole vanishes. As an example, consider maize, wheat, and rice.

• In the outer portion of the coconut, there is a multicellular solid endosperm, and in the interior, there is a free nuclear liquid endosperm.

2. Cellular endosperm 

• A wall forms after each division of the primary endosperm nucleus. As a result, the endosperm is cellular from the start, as in Datura, balsam, and Petunia.

3. Helobial endosperm 

• The first division results in the formation of two cells. Within these cells, the free nuclear division may occur. They may eventually become cellular as well. For example, Eremurus and Asphodelus. 


Functions of Endosperms

(i) Endosperm nutrients aid in early seedling growth in plants with albuminous seeds.

(ii) Endosperm nourishes the developing embryo.

(iii) Coconut liquid endosperm includes cytokinins, auxins, and GA, and stimulates cytokinesis when given to a basic nutritional medium. Coconut milk can also be used to induce embryo and plantlet differentiation from various plant tissues (iv) Zeatin is a highly effective cytokinin. It is derived from maize's young endosperm. 


Embyrogeny (embryo formation) 

• It is the formation of a mature embryo from a zygote or an oospore.

• Early development results in an axially symmetric pro-embryo.

• The embryo goes through the globular stage.

• Because of the presence of a suspensor, embryo development occurs on the inner side. As a result, embryo development is endoscopic.

• Dicot embryogenesis (crucifer / onagrad):

• The zygote is categorised into two unequal cells: a larger suspensor cell directing towards the micropyle and a smaller embryo cell facing towards the antipodal region.

• The suspensor cell divides transversely, resulting in a 6-10 celled suspensor.

• The first cell of the suspensor is known as the haustorium, and the last cell (towards the embryo cell) is known as the hypophysis. It produces radicles. 

• A single embryo cell divides twice. Vertically and once transversely to produce an embryo, which is a two-tiered eight-cell. Two cotyledons and a plumule are formed by the epibasal (terminal) tier. Only hypocotyls are produced by the hypobasal (near the suspensor) tier.

• It is globular at first. Later, it takes on a heart shape before resuming its original shape.

• A dicotyledonous embryo is made up of an embryonal axis and two cotyledons.

• The epicotyl is the part of the embryonal axis that is above the level of the cotyledons. It comes to an end with the plumule, which is the tip of the stem. The plumule is the source of the future shoot.

• Hypocotyls are the parts of the plant that are below the level of the cotyledons. It comes to an end at the root tip known as radical. The radicle is the source of the future root. The root cap is responsible for protecting the root tip.

The curving of the ovule causes the cotyledons to curve as they emerge and elongate in Caspella bursa pastoris. In orchids such as Orboanche and Utricularis, the embryo does not differentiate into plumule, cotyledon, and radical.

• Monocot embryogeny (Sagittaria type) 

• The zygote divides transversely to form a vesicular suspensor cell facing the micropylar end and an embryo cell facing the chalazal end, then divides again to form a terminal and middle cell.

• The terminal cell divides vertically and transversely to form a globular embryo. It also produces a plumule and a large cotyledon. The plumule is pushed to one side as the cotyledon grows. The remnants of the second cotyledon are generally found in certain grasses. It is referred to as epiblast. The scutellum is the single cotyledon of monocots. It has the shape of a shield and appears as a terminal. 

The hypocotyls and radicle are produced by the middle cell. It may result in an increase in suspensor cell numbers. Both the radicle and the plumule are protected by sheaths. They are referred to as coleorhizae and coleoptiles, respectively. 

They could be scutellum extensions.


Formation of Seed and Fruit

Fruit refers to a ripened or fertilized ovary.

The pericarp is a fleshy or dry fruit wall formed by the ovary wall.

Epicarp, mesocarp, and endocarp are the three layers of fleshy fruit or pericarp.

It is the fruit covering that develops from the ovary wall.

• It is a dry or fleshy fruit part that serves as a protective covering and provides nutrition to the seed.

• Ripened ovules are referred to as seeds.

• The ovule's integuments form the seed coat. The testa is formed by the outer integuments, and the tegmen is formed by the inner integuments.

• In some cases, a type of third integument or aril is present, such as litchi, ingadulce (Pithecolobium), Asphodelus, and Trianthema. It adds a layer of seed protection.

• A spongy outgrowth near the micropyle is present in certain seeds, such as castor (Ricinus communis). It's referred to as caruncle. It aids seed germination by absorbing water. 

• Funiculus forms the seed stalk. 

• The stalk eventually withers and leaves a minute scar called the hilum. 

• Orchids have the smallest seeds. Because they are the lightest in the plant kingdom, they are known as dust seeds. Each orchid seed weighs approximately 20.33g when it is fresh.

• Seeds are classified as follows based on the presence or absence of endosperm.

(i) Non-endospermic or ex-albuminous: The developing embryo consumes all of the food stored in the endosperm. Gram, pea, bean, and orchid are some examples.

(ii) Endospermic or albuminous: Endosperm grows rapidly and is not completely consumed by the developing embryo. The cotyledons are thin in this case. Wheat seed, barley seed, castor seed, poppy seed, and so on are examples.


Importance of Seeds

• Evolutionary success: Seed is an evolutionary success. It shields the embryo from harm.

• Seeds contain a sufficient food reserve to feed the germinating embryo.

• Because of dispersal, seeds can colonize and populate new areas, as well as spread and propagate their species.

• Because seeds are the result of sexual reproduction, they have a wide range of variations, which aids in adaptation to a variety of environments.

• Human seed germination and sowing gave rise to agriculture, which aided in the advancement of civilization, science, and technology.


Seed Viability 

• It is the amount of time that the seeds retain their ability to germinate.

• Both genetic and environmental factors influence seed viability.

• Humidity and temperature are two environmental factors that can affect viability.

• Seed viability varies genetically from a few days (e.g., Oxalis), one season (e.g., Birch), and 2-5 years (most crop plants) to 100 years (e.g. Trifolium).

• Lotus seed viability has been found to be more than 1000 years. Phoenix dactylifera seeds discovered in King Herod's palace near the Dead Sea 2000 years ago have been found to be viable. 

• Similarly, 10,000 year old Lupins arcticus (Lupine) seeds excavated from Arctic Tundra not only germinated but also produced flowering plants.

• The viability of the seed is determined by (a) respiration and (b) germination.

• Respiring seed converts the colourless triphenyl tetrazolium chloride to the pink tripheyl formazan. 


i) Apomixis (apo - without, mixis - marriage)

• It is the formation of new individuals through asexual methods that mimic sexual reproduction, including seed formation, but do not involve gamete or sex cell fusion. • Amphimixis is a normal type of sexual reproduction with two regular features, namely meiosis and fertilization.

• Apomicts are organisms that reproduce through apomixes.

• Apomixis is controlled by genes, and individuals are genetically similar to the parent that produced them, i.e. they are clones, and members of a clone are known as ramets.

It occurs through the following mechanisms: 

a) the formation of asexual seeds if the embryo develops directly without gametic fusion. 

b) Sporophytic budding occurs when an embryo develops accidentally from diploid nucellus or integument cells, as in mango, orange, Opuntia, or onion. 


ii) Parthenogenesis (Gk. Parthenos – virgin; genesis – descent)

• Parthenogenesis is the development of a new individual from a single gamete without fusion with another gamete. 

• Depending on the ploidy of the gametes, there are two types of parthenogenesis – haploid and diploid.

• In haploid parthenogenesis, the embryo sac and its egg are both haploid. 

• In diploid parthenogenesis, the embryo sac, as well as the egg it contains, is diploid. It goes through parthenogenesis and produces a diploid embryo. 

• Diploid parthenogenesis is usually accompanied by meiosis failure during megasporogenesis as well as the direct formation of an embryo sac from a nucellar cell, as in Poa, apple, and rubus.


iii) Apogamy ( Gk. Apo – without, gamos – marriage) 

• It is the direct formation of a sporophyte or embryo from gametophyte cells. Only diploid apogamy is successful in higher plants, which means that the gametophytic cell that forms the sporophyte is diploid. Haplodiploid apogamy is equally successful in lower plants.


Polyembryony 

• Polyembryony refers to the process of having more than one embryo.

• Polyembryony caused by the fertilization of more than one egg cell is referred to as simple polyembryony.

• Additional embryos can be formed from various parts of the ovule, such as synergids, antipodal, nucellus, integuments, and so on.

• Citrus, groundnut, onion, Opuntia, Mangifera are some examples.

• In 1719, Leeuwenhoek discovered polyembryony. Schnarf confirmed the same in 1929.

• Polyembryony occurs more frequently in gymnosperms than in angiosperms.

• Polyembryony can be either true or false embryony.

• In false embryony, multiple embryos form in different embryo sacs in the ovule, whereas multiple embryos form in the same embryo sac in true embryony.

• Polyembryony may be caused by:

-Proembryo cleavage, for example, in the orchidaceae family.

-Development of many embryos from cells other than the egg in the embryo sac. E.g. Argemone

-The formation of numerous embryos as a result of the presence of more than one embryo sac in the same ovule, e.g. Citrus

-The formation of many embryos from structures outside the embryo sac, such as mango and Opuntia. 

• Polyembryony is important for practical reasons because nucellar embryos can produce genetically uniform parental type seedlings.

• Nucellar embryos are qualitatively superior to those obtained through vegetative propagation because nucellar embryo seedlings are disease-free and retain their superiority for an extended period of time.

Parthenocarpy: (Gk. Parthenos – virgin, karpos – fruit) 

• It is the process of fruit formation that occurs without the event of fertilization.

• Parthenocarpic fruits are seedless, such as apples, pears, bananas, and pineapples. 

• Parthenocarpic fruits also have seeds with an asexual embryo or pseudoseeds.

• There are three types of parthenocarpy: genetic, environmental, and chemically induced.


Genetic parthenocarpy:

Parthenocarpy is caused by a genetic alteration caused by mutation or hybridization. Natural parthenocarpy is another name for it. For example, bananas, apples, pineapples, grape varieties, and pears. 


Environmental parthenocarpy: 

Parthenocarpy is caused by environmental factors:  Low temperatures, frost, and fog can cause parthenocarpy in a variety of plants. pears, olives, capsicums, and tomatoes


Chemically induced parthenocarpy: 

• Spray or paste of auxins and gibberellins in low concentrations of 10-6 – 10-7 M has been found to induce parthenocarpy in several plants. Tomatoes, citrus fruits, strawberries, blackberries, figs, and so on are examples.


Importance of parthenocarpic fruits 

• They lack seeds, which must be removed before eating fruits.

• Fruits can be grown in greenhouses without the need for pollinators.

• More efficient food processing


Understanding the Chapter: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

The experts have provided a detailed summary of the chapter along with a detailed and interactive explanation of each topic with points to remember and illustrations. The format used in Biology Class 12 Chapter 2 revision notes will help the students in retaining the contents of the chapter longer and formulating their answers in the exams. Students are required to draw illustrations in the exams and diagrams have been included by the experts in the notes along with all important topics.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants Class 12 Biology revision notes include all topics that carry a good weightage in the exams. The pre-fertilization process of the plants includes four steps: pollen grain formation, embryo sac formation, pollination, and pollen pistil integration. Each of these steps has been elaborately explained crisply so that students can retain the key points easily.

Students can revise their concepts about pollen grains through these notes quickly. It is a topic that forms a base for several other specialized topics in biology and getting a good grasp on the basics is important at this stage. The characteristics of pollen grains, pollen viability, pollen allergy have been explained with examples and easy to memorize steps. 

The pistil or gynoecium is the female reproductive part of the plant. Students can refer to the revision notes class 12 Biology Chapter 2 for a detailed summary of the pistil, its structure, and its role in the reproduction process. The formation of the embryo sac and the process of pollination have been beautifully explained in an easy to comprehend language and a format that can be easily learned by the students.

These notes give students collated information on pollination and its different types. Self-pollination is the process of transfer of pollen from the anthers to the stigma of the same flower or a different flower on the same plant. Cross-pollination refers to the transfer of anthers from one flower to another flower of a different plant or different species. NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 Class 12 Biology revision notes can be used to revise these concepts, the processes, their advantages, and disadvantages.

Another classification of pollination can be done based on the agents of pollination. These agents include water, wind, insects, birds, and bats. Significance of pollination, post-pollination chain of events, and the process of double-fertilization are some vital concepts that students must revise well before appearing for their exams. Post-fertilization process and its structure, the formation of fruit and seed, the importance of seed can be revised in detail through the notes.

Class 12 Biology Chapter 2 revision notes include a detailed definition of critical terms like a flower, megasporogenesis, microsporogenesis, pollination, and fertilization. Students can refer to the notes to know more about how these processes take place in the flowering plants.


Important Questions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 2

Here are a few important questions that students should prepare for their Class 12 exam. Few of these questions were also asked in CBSE Class 12 Previous Year’s Papers.


Go through the CBSE Class 12 Chapter 2 Revision Notes and try solving these questions.


Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants is an important topic for the Class 12 exam and hence, solving these questions will help you to clear your doubts properly.


  1. What is the significance of double fertilization?

  2. Define Pollination. Mention different types of pollination.

  3. Mention the functions of ovaries in a flowering plant.

  4. What is a common function performed by the cotyledons and the nucellus?

  5. What is Agamospermy?

  6. Mention one advantage as well as one disadvantage of cleistogamy in flowering plants.

  7. What is inflorescence? 

  8. What are the advantages and disadvantages of self-pollination?

  9. What is the significance of Apomixis?

  10. Explain the process of development of microspores in angiosperms.

FAQs on Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants Class 12 Notes CBSE Biology Chapter 2 (Free PDF Download)

1. What are the benefits of referring to NCERT class 12 revision notes Biology Chapter 2 solution by Vedantu?

Class 12 Biology Chapter 2 - Sexual reproduction in flowering plants is an important chapter of the syllabus as it carries a good weightage in the exams. By referring to the notes students can meticulously and methodically prepare for their exam. The notes cover all the important sub-topics along with illustrations that can be revised by the student without going back to the textbook. The language is easy to understand and the bulleted and crisp answers can be learned by students with ease.

2. What are the important features and topics covered in Class 12 Biology revision notes solution Chapter 2?

The revision notes for Chapter 2 Class 12 Biology explain all the important topics in a step by step manner. They explain the pre-fertilization process and help the students understand pollen grains by summarising the vital steps in the process in a pointwise format. The characteristics of pollen grains and the female reproductive part of the plant have been covered in detail along with illustrations that will help the students understand the topic well. Different types of pollination that include self-pollination and cross-pollination are a part of these notes.  The characteristics of water pollination and wind pollination, the importance of pollination, double fertilization, and the post-fertilization process are some other important concepts that students can revise through these notes.

3. What is sexual reproduction in flowering plants Class 12?

In a plant, flowers are usually the site where sexual reproduction takes place. It is the process where the fusion of haploid gametes results in the production of a diploid zygote, resulting in the existence of the new organism. The flowering plants undergo the process of sexual reproduction through pollination. The male sex organ, i.e., stamens, and the female sex organ, i.e., The pistils are both parts of the flower. Stamen has the part called anther that produces the pollen. This pollen is then transferred to the part called stigma present in the pistil for the fusion to take place. The Chapter “Sexual reproduction in Flowering plants” of Class 12 deals with this process in detail, along with providing the students adequate insight into the various parts of the plant.

4. Explain in detail the sexual reproduction in flowering plants.

The reproduction in a plant takes place when there is a fusion between the male and the female gametes, which gives rise to the zygote. This fusion is the result of the process called pollination where the pollen from the anther present in the male sex organ, stigma, reaches the stigma of the female sex organ, pistil.  The next step involves fertilization, i.e., the joining of the male and female gametes, where the pollen lands on the stigma and moves towards the ovule where it combines with the female gamete to produce a fertilized egg called the zygote. This egg divides numerous times to form the embryo. This gradually takes the shape of a seed. Thus, the ovary of the flower develops into a fruit that contains seeds inside it. This seed is the reproductive part which will further result in the growth of new plants.

5. Is Class 12 Chapter 2 Biology easy?

As it is often said that with practice, everything becomes easy. Thus, it is important that the students practice Class 12 Chapter 2 thoroughly to ensure the chapter becomes easier. The most important thing when it comes to studying biology is remembering the various biological names and explanations. Thus, the student needs continuous practice and hard work in order to be able to do well in the exam. To assist them in this process, the NCERT Solutions by Vedantu are the best guides. The students can avail it online. With constant practice and dedication, anything that had appeared hard in the starting will eventually become easy for them.

6. Are the NCERT solutions necessary for Class 12 Chapter 2 Biology?

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chapter 2 are extremely necessary for the students in order to do well in their Board examinations as it provides a detailed explanation of the subject. These solutions are designed by student matter experts and are designed in a manner to fulfil the demands and needs of the students. They have solved exercises with them, to help the student decipher the contents and understand the process in a better light. Apart from this, they also provide the student with previous year’s question papers that help the student in getting an idea about how the questions might be asked in the question paper. The PDFs of the NCERT Solutions are available on the Vedantu app and on the Vedantu website for free of cost.

7. What are the different kinds of pollination?

AUTOGAMY 

Here, the process of pollination occurs within the same flower, that is, the transfer of the pollen grain from the male organ, anther, to stigma, happens in the same flower. 

GEITONOGAMY

Here the transfer of pollen occurs from the anther to the stigma of another flower present in the same plant.

XENOGAMY

In this kind of pollination, the pollen is transferred from the anther of the flower of one plant to the stigma of another flower from a different plant.