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Reproductive Health Class 12 Notes CBSE Biology Chapter 4 (Free PDF Download)

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Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 (Biology Reproductive Health) - Free PDF Download

Scoring high in 12th and getting admission into various entrance exams is the dream of many students. Class 12 biology Reproductive Health Revision Notes by the expert team of Vedantu will help you in it. Once you've read through these notes, you can better prepare for your examinations because the NCERT Class 12 Revision Notes biology chapter 4 solution is totally based on the new CBSE curriculum. To ensure that their concepts were understood at the core level, the subject matter experts at Vedantu produced the solution in a straightforward, step-by-step format.


Download CBSE Class 12 Biology Notes 2024-25 PDF

Also, check CBSE Class 12 Biology revision notes for other chapters:


CBSE Class 12 Biology Notes

Chapter 1- Reproduction in Organisms

Chapter 2 - Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Chapter 3 - Human Reproduction

Chapter 4 - Reproductive Health

Chapter 5 - Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Chapter 6 - Molecular Basis of Inheritance

Chapter 7 - Evolution

Chapter 8 - Human Health and Disease

Chapter 9 - Strategies for Enhancement in Food production

Chapter 10 - Microbes in Human Welfare

Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Chapter 12 - Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter 13 - Organisms and Populations

Chapter 14 - Ecosystem

Chapter 15 - Biodiversity and Conservation

Chapter 16 - Environmental Issues


Important Chapter Wise Related Links

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Biology Reproductive Health Class 12 Notes Biology - Basic Subjective Questions


Section–A (1 Mark Questions)

1. What is reproductive health?

Ans. Reproductive health refers to the physical, mental and social well-being of an individual in all matters related to the reproductive system, its functions and processes.


2. Mention the primary aim of the “Assisted Reproductive Technology”(ART) programme.

Ans. The main aim of the “Assisted Reproductive Technology” programme is to assist the infertile couples and help them in conceiving a child.


3. Why is tubectomy considered a contraceptive method?

Ans. Tubectomy is the permanent method of sterilization in women. In this method, the fallopian tubes are blocked or cut so that the egg is stopped from travelling to the uterus. This eliminates any chances of pregnancy.


4. Males in whom testes fail to descend to the scrotum are generally infertile. Why?

Ans. In testes, sperm production takes place in the seminiferous tubules. This process is temperature sensitive. If the testes fail to descend in the scrotum before puberty, they will not produce sperms. Hence, the male will be infertile.


5. Name two STDs which are completely curable.

Ans. Two STDs that are curable are: 

  • Gonorrhoea 

  • Genital warts


Section–B (2 Marks Questions)

6. How can lactation amenorrhea be considered as a natural method of contraception?

Ans. Lactational amenorrhoea is a condition when a mother is breastfeeding her infant.

● During this period the mother cannot ovulate due to high levels of prolactin in the body. Hence, the chances of conception are zero.

● It is a natural method of contraceptive that does not include any pill, hence no side effects.


7. How do oral contraceptives function? What is the advantage of Saheli?

Ans. Oral contraceptives are known also as the pill or birth control pills. This medicine usually contains two types of hormones, oestrogens and progestins and when taken properly, prevents pregnancy. It works by stopping a woman's egg from fully developing each month. Saheli is a nonsteroidal pill which blocks the receptors of estrogen hormone. Hence, it has no side Effects.


8. How do Diaphragms, cervical caps and vaults act as a barrier? Give two advantages of using barrier methods of contraception.

Ans. Diaphragms, cervical caps and vaults are barriers made of rubber that are inserted into the female reproductive tract to cover the cervix during coitus. This prevents the entry of sperm and further avoids the fertilization of both the gametes. Hence, it is a method of contraception.The advantages of barrier methods are :

● Widely available and simple to use and only need to be used immediately before intercourse.

● They are protective against many STIs.


9. Strict conditions are to be followed in medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) procedures. Mention two reasons.

Ans. wo reasons for the need of strict conditions in MTP are as follows:

● Many people resort to MTP for female foeticide.

● It may result in serious consequences for the woman if performed at the wrong trimester of pregnancy.


10. What are the benefits of natural contraceptive methods over artificial methods?

Ans. Following are some of the advantages of natural methods of contraception over artificial methods:

● They are cost-effective.

● They do not have side effects.

● They do not disturb the normal sexual life of the couple.


PDF Summary - Class 12 Biology Reproductive Health Revision Notes Notes (Chapter 4)

Reproductive Health: The complete well-being with respect to all aspects of reproduction like physical, emotional, behavioural, and social. A community that supports reproduction has members who interact normally in terms of behaviour and emotion, as well as reproductive organs that are physically and functionally normal.


4.1: Reproductive Health- Problems and Strategies 

(i) In 1951, the strategies for family planning were introduced in India whose main aim was to achieve total reproductive health, and these strategies were evaluated every now and then. 

(ii) Reproductive and Child Health Care (RCH) Programs are being introduced in order to create awareness among people about various reproduction-related aspects and in building a reproductively healthy society by providing facilities and support. 

(iii) Steps to Achieve Reproductive Health: 

1. Use of audio-visual and media print by both the governmental and non-governmental agencies to create awareness programs.

2. Young adults and children must be provided with correct information by the responsible adults, teachers, parents, close relatives, and friends along with open dialogues to make them aware of reproductive health.

3. Sex education needs to be introduced in schools and colleges.

4. Awareness must be created about Sexually Transmitted Diseases or STDs.

5. There is a need to educate people about birth control options, pre ad post-natal care along with the importance of child care especially for fertile couples and marriageable individuals. They must also be made aware of the importance of breastfeeding, all this will result in the development of a conscious and healthy society and families. 

6. People must be made aware of the problems related to the population explosion, sex-related crimes, and sex abuse. 

7. To successfully implement the health plans there must be the availability of professional expertise, provision and availability of strong infrastructural facilities, and material support. 

8. The facilities that are provided must be newer and upgraded in accordance with the need of reproductive health.

9. Complete ban on fetal sex determination to check female foeticide. 

10. Large-scale child immunization programs.

Certain factors need to be under check in order to decrease the rate of maternal and infant mortality, these factors are: 

(i) Awareness must be created related to matters of sex. 

(ii) The deliveries need to be medically assisted.

(iii) Better post-natal care. 

Indicators to indicate the improved reproductive health of the society is: 

(i) Smaller families.

(ii) Early detection and cure for STDs.

(iii) Overall increased medical facilities. 


4.3: Population Explosion and Birth Control 

Population Explosion: After World War II, there is a sharp increase in the number of some species, particularly humans, in the world, which causes the birth rate to rise and the rates of pregnancy, childbirth, and maternal mortality to fall. The lifespan of people will also grow as a result of this.


This will result in increased stress on all resources. 


Causes: 

(i) The rapid decrease in the death rate.

(ii) The rapid decrease in the maternal mortality rate (MMR).

(iii) The rapid decrease in the infant mortality rate (IMR).

(iv) The increase in the period of life expectancy.

(v) The increase in the number of people belonging to the reproducible age.

Methods to Control Population Explosion: 

(i) Promoting the smaller families.

(ii) Promoting the use of contraceptive methods.

(iii) Increasing the legal age for marriage (18 years for females and 21 years for males).

(iv) Appreciative measures towards couples with smaller families. 

Ideal Contraceptive: 

(i) Should be used easily.

(ii) Should be available easily.

(iii) Should be effective.

(iv) Side effects must be absent or minimum.

(v) Should be reversible.

(vi) Should not affect the desire, sexual drive, or act of the individual.

Methods of Contraception: 

1. Natural or Traditional 

2. Barrier Methods 

3. Intra-uterine devices (IUDs) 

4. Oral contraceptives 

5. Injectable and implants 

6. Surgical Methods 


1. Natural Methods: 

It is based on principles related to avoiding the fusion of the sperms and the egg. 

(i) Periodic Abstinence: In this method, The couples prevent themselves from intercourse during the 10th and 17th day of the menstrual cycle since during this period the chances of ovulation are maximum, called the fertile period. Therefore, refraining from coitus during this period will result in a decrease in the chances of pregnancy. 

(ii) Withdrawal or Coitus interruptus: In this method, during the process of coitus, the male withdraws the penis from the vagina just before ejaculation. Thus, preventing the release of semen in the vagina which results in the prevention of insemination. 

(iii) Lactational amenorrhea: This method occurs during the lactation period when the menstrual cycle is absent in the females. During this period there will be no ovulation and this results in the decreased chances of pregnancy. This period continues only up to six months after the birth of the child (parturition) till the period of intense lactation. 

In the case of natural barriers, there is no use of chemicals leading to no side effects although its success rate is limited and the chances of failure are also high. They are not completely safe. 


2. Barrier Methods: 

In this method, there are certain physical barriers used that prevent the fusion of sperms and ovum. 

(i) Condoms: They are the physical barriers that are made up of thin rubber or latex sheath that cover the penis in males while in the case of females they cover the cervix. 

(ii) The condoms for both males and females can be easily disposed of. 

(iii) condoms are useful in preventing the transfer of STDs as stop the meeting of genital fluids of both partners. 

(iv) Ceratin other barriers like cervical caps, diaphragms, and vaults can also be used by the females to cover the cervix during the process of coitus that prevents the entry of sperms and these barriers are reusable.

(v) To increase the efficiency of these barriers various foams, gels, and spermicidal creams are used along with these barriers.


Condoms for male

(i)Condoms for male


Condoms for female

(ii)Condoms for female


3. Intra-Uterine Devices (IUDs): 

They are those devices that are inserted into the uterus of the females through the vagina with the help of either doctors or expert nurses. IUDs are of various types:

(i) Non-medicated IUDs like Lippes Hoopes that lead to an increase in the phagocytosis of sperms.

(ii) Copper releasing IUDs like Copper-T, Copper-7, Multiload 375 that results in a decreased rate of sperms motility.

(iii) IUDs that release hormone-like Progestasert, LNG-20 are useful in making the uterus unsuitable for implantation and will also make the cervix hostile towards the sperms. 

These devices are ideal contraceptives and the most widely used method of contraception for females in order to maintain family planning. 


Intra-Uterine Devices

4. Oral Contraceptives: 

This method includes the usage of pills that are the combination of oral administration of progestogens or progesterone-estrogen. They are taken for 21 days and are skipped during the 7 days of the menstrual cycle and then after 7 days of the menstrual cycle, they are taken again and should only be stopped when the females wish to conceive. There is a development of newer pills called Saheli that are taken once a week and are non-steroidal pills with very few side effects and help in preventing ovulation and implantation and make the cervix hostile towards the sperms. 


5. Injectable and Implants:

There are certain implants or injections that can also be taken by the females under the skin. These are the combination of either progesterone alone or both progesterone and estrogens. They work almost similar to the pills but continue their effect for a longer time period. 


6. Surgical Methods: 

This method includes the interference of surgery in blocking the movement of gametes leading to failed conception. They are the terminal methods of contraception and are therefore also called sterilization. In the case of males, sterilization is called vasectomy while it is called tubectomy in the case of females.

(i) Vasectomy: Here, the Vas deferens of the male reproductive system are cut with the help of a small incision in the scrotum and then tied up.

(ii) Tubectomy: Here, the fallopian tubes of the female reproductive system are cut with the help of a small incision in the abdomen or the vagina and then tied up. 

These methods are highly effective methods of contraception but the chances of their reversibility are very poor. 

The need for contraceptive methods is to help in checking the population explosion. But the use of various methods of contraception may also lead to various side effects that include abdominal pain,  nausea, irregular menstruation, breakthrough bleeding, breast cancer, etc.


4.3: Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP): 

The medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) is also called the induced abortion where the pregnancy is terminated intentionally before its full-term completion. Though MTP is used for the purpose of decreasing population growth, it sometimes plays a major role in decreasing population. In 1971, the use of MTP was legalized by the Government of India along with certain strict provisions to prevent its misuse. 

Why MTP? 

(i) To prevent unwanted pregnancies.

(ii) It is useful in certain cases where the continuation of the pregnancy may be fatal for either mother or fetus or both. In the first trimester of pregnancy, MTPs are safe while during the second trimester they become riskier. It is often observed that the MTPs are sometimes performed by quacks or unqualified doctors leading to fatality for the mothers. Also, the use of amniocentesis or other methods for the determination of pre-natal sex will results in female foeticide due to the preference of a male child over a female child is very high. 


4.4: Sexually Transmitted Diseases: 

Those diseases or infections that are transmitted through sexual activities and intercourse and are responsible for infecting the reproductive tract of a person are called sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or venereal diseases (VD) or reproductive tract infections (RTI). Common examples of STDs are Gonorrhea, genital herpes, syphilis, genital warts, chlamydiosis, hepatitis-B, trichomoniasis, HIV leading to AIDS. The most dangerous STDs among the above mentioned are HIV infection. 

Hepatitis-b and HIV are transmitted easily by simply sharing injections, syringes, or surgical tools. It can also be transmitted through transfusion of blood from an infected person to another, or even in the developing fetus if the mother is suffering from STDs. 

STDs when detected early, then are curable except for Hepatitis-B, HIV infections, and genital herpes. 

Some common symptoms for STDs include itching, slight pain, fluid discharge, swellings, etc. 

The STDs are asymptomatic for a long time in individuals thus leading to late detection of the disease making it incurable for the Individuals 

The STDs result in various complications that include abortions, pelvic inflammatory diseases (PID), ectopic pregnancies, stillbirths, infertility, or even cancer of the reproductive tract. STDs act as a barrier to achieving a healthy society. Thus, in the case of STDs, the prime importance is given to prevention or early detection, and then the cure of these diseases under reproductive healthcare programs.

Steps to prevent STDs:

(i)  To avoid sex with strangers/multiple partners.

(ii) Use condoms during coitus must be checked.

(iii) If a slight irritation is observed contact an expert or a qualified doctor for early detection of disease and get treatment on time.


4.5: Infertility: 

The inability to produce children even after the process of unprotected coitus is called infertility. 

The reasons leading to infertility can be physical, diseases, congenital, immunological, drugs, or even psychological. 

It is noticed that in society mainly women are blamed for being childless but the problem can be in either of the male or the female. 

The disorders of infertility can be treated sometimes with the help of specialized health care units like infertility clinics and if these treatments are not effective then the couples can opt for Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). 

(i) In-vitro Fertilisation (IVF): The process involves the method of fusion of gametes outside the body mainly in the laboratories where the conditions that are similar to the body are maintained. The fertilized zygote formed will then be divided and results in the formation of the embryo which is then transferred into the uterus of the female. 

(ii) Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer (ZIFT): In this process, the transfer of zygote or early embryo (up to 8 blastomeres) into the fallopian tube of the female is performed. 

(iii) Intra-Uterine Transfer (IUT): It involves the transfer of embryos into the uterus of the female with more than 8 blastomeres.

(iv) Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT): This process involves the collection of the ovum from the donor female and is then introduced into the other female who cannot produce the ovum but the internal body conditions are suitable for the process of fertilization and embryo development. 

(v) Intracytoplasmic Sperm injection (ICSI): In this process, the sperms are directly injected into the ovum of the female that results in the formation of the embryo in the laboratory.

(vi) Artificial insemination (AI) technique: This technique involves the collection of semen that consists of sperm from either the husband or a healthy male donor and is then injected into either the vagina or the uterus (IUI – intra-uterine insemination) of the female body. 

All these methods are performed by certified experts who are highly experienced with the technologies used and also require instruments that are quite expensive. 

Another good option for couples who desire children is a legal adoption.


Class 12 Biology Revision Notes Solution Chapter 4 PDF Download

The entire Revision Notes Class 12 biology chapter 4 is available in PDF format at the official website of Vedantu. Students can easily download it from anywhere and later access it without being connected to the internet. The Class 12 Notes Reproductive Health can also be printed out so that you can have a group study with your friends.


Reproductive Health Class 12 Biology Revision Notes

Reproductive Health - This refers to the overall well-being, including physical, social, emotional, and behavioral aspects. A society is termed as reproductively healthy if it has a population with physically healthy reproductive organs and normal emotional and social behaviors. Some of the strategies applied to better the reproductive health of the society are:

  • In 1951 family planning measures were taken in India to obtain total reproductive health, and they were evaluated periodically.

  • RCH Programs - These are programs for reproductive and child health care to make people aware of various reproductive aspects. It also provides support and facilitates a reproductively, healthy society.

  • Create awareness about STDs (sexually transmitted diseases).

Population Explosion and Birth Control - Since the end of World War II, there has been an explosion of the population worldwide. This could be attributed to an increase in birth rates and a decrease in infant mortality. It could lead to stress in society and all resources. Various steps are being taken to overcome this issue:

  • Encourage smaller family units.

  • Explain the use and benefits of contraceptive measures.

  • Give incentive to couples who have smaller families.

  • Raise the minimum legal age for marriage - 18 for girls and 21 for boys.

Methods of Contraception - The NCERT solutions chapter 4 Class 12 Biology Revision Notes explain the concept of contraception in detail. These are the various methods employed as a means to keep the population in check:

  • Traditional or Natural - In this, couples either avoid coitus between the ovulation period, i.e., the 10th and 17th day of the menstrual cycle, or use the coitus interruptus method.

  • Barrier Methods - In this, the sperm and ovum have physical barriers; hence they can not meet. It is done with the use of both male and female condoms. To increase the efficiency of this method, many spermicidal creams, foams, and jellies are also used.

  • IUDs - The intra-uterine devices like Lippes Hoopes or copper releasing IUDs like Copper-7 or Copper-T decrease motility or increase phagocytosis of sperms, which makes pregnancy improbable. These are ideal as a female contraceptive and the most widely used method of contraception.

  • Oral Contraceptives - These are in the form of pills that are either progestogens or a progestin-estrogen combination. These are female contraceptives administered for 21 days that start within the first 5 days of the menstrual cycle.

MTP or Medical Termination of Pregnancy - When someone chooses to terminate pregnancy voluntarily or intentionally before completing full-term, it is referred to as medical termination of pregnancy. MTP has played a major role in decreasing population, though that is not the purpose of this process. In 1971, India's government legalized this method with a few strict guidelines so that no one can misuse it. Few important points about this process are:

  • It was legalized to prevent unwanted pregnancies.

  • It is also helpful if the continuation of the pregnancy is risky for either the mother or the fetus or both.

  • The MTP process is safe during the first trimester of pregnancy, and from the second trimester, it becomes riskier.

  • It should be done under proper medical care as it might prove fatal by other quacks or fake doctors.


Conclusion

In conclusion, the availability of free PDF download notes for CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 on Reproductive Health is an invaluable resource for students studying this topic. Chapter 4 delves into the crucial aspects of reproductive health, including reproductive rights, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), contraception methods, infertility, and assisted reproductive technologies.


The free PDF download notes for CBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 4 on Reproductive Health provide students with a convenient and effective tool to enhance their understanding of this vital topic. These notes serve as a valuable resource for exam preparation, promoting a deeper appreciation for reproductive health and its significance in maintaining individual and societal well-being.

FAQs on Reproductive Health Class 12 Notes CBSE Biology Chapter 4 (Free PDF Download)

Q1. What are STDs and How can they be Prevented?

Ans. STDs or sexually transmitted diseases are infections or conditions that are transmitted by sexual activities. They are also called venereal diseases or RTI (reproductive tract infections). Few examples of STDs are syphilis, gonorrhea, hepatitis-B, HIV. Aids caused by HIV can also be transmitted by using the same injection with an infected person or any surgical implements like blood transfusion, transmission from infected mother to the fetus, etc. Some of the steps to prevent STDs are:

  • Avoid sex with multiple partners or unknown people.

  • Use of condoms during intercourse.

  • Seeking medical help, if in doubt, for early detection and treatment.

Q2. What is Infertility and What Methods can be Helpful in Infertility?

Ans. Even with unprotected intercourse, if a couple cannot have children, this is termed as infertility. There are numerous reasons for this, such as congenital, immunological, drugs, psychological, etc. Few techniques that can be helpful in the particular case of infertility are:

  • IVF or In Vitro Fertilization.

  • Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer.

  • Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer.

Q3. What are the different ways one could contract an STD?

Sexual intimacy is the most common route of infection, other modes of infection also exist based on the disease under study. Vaginal, oral and anal sex are the most common routes of infection. However, skin to skin contact can also be a route of transmission as in the case of herpes. Spread of infection through saliva can also occur in case of syphilis and herpes.

Q4. How to spread awareness regarding STDs and sexual health?

It is important to spread knowledge about Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Campaigns that address these topics can be held in government schools and universities. Posters can be put up on the notice boards of schools. Seminars conducted by healthcare workers in schools can help throw light on the importance of sexual health and reproductive wellbeing. 


Q5. Where can I find notes on Reproductive health and STDs?

You can find lesson wise notes prepared by experienced faculty on the Vedantu website and the app. These notes are easily understandable with well-labelled diagrams and verified facts. The notes found on the website can not only be used to understand the topic but can also help you in last-minute revisions before the exam. 


Q6. Is Chapter 4 of Class 12 Biology easy?

Class 12 biology can be considerably hard. But, the ease or difficulty of this chapter depends on the student. The main reason for this difficulty is because students find it a challenge to cope with the concept. There are many new concepts that are introduced in this chapter,  which demand attention and hence are time-consuming.  However, if a student dedicates enough time and tries to understand the concept that’s being taught, it can get easier.


Q7.  How to master Chapter 4 of Class 12 Biology?


The notes curated by Vedantu for this chapter provide a brief yet in-depth understanding of the chapter. Concepts are clearly explained with well-labelled diagrams and the notes are written by well-qualified faculty. These notes can be an efficient way to brush up on topics prior to the examination. Focusing on understanding the concept and fundamentals of the chapter will help in mastering this chapter. The revision notes can also be downloaded free of cost to study offline.