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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 - Biotechnology Principles And Processes

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes - Free PDF Download

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology will help you understand the fundamental topics covered in the syllabus, from an examination point of view. NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 syllabus is also followed by a slew of competitive exams that gauge theoretical and applicational conceptual understanding of students equally. Problem-solving is the crucial aspect of clearing Class 12 board exams with high grades. So, you must understand how the fundamental concepts of Biology can be applied in problem-solving, rather than just mugging up the theories.

Vedantu’s Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions will help you gain a strong foundation in terms of theoretical knowledge, as well as help you score higher in the board exams. You can download Vedantu’s CBSE NCERT Solutions for Class 12, Chapter 11- Biotechnology: Principles and Processes for free as a PDF file.


NCERT Solutions for Class 12


Class 12 Biology

Chapter Name:

Chapter 11 - Biotechnology Principles And Processes


Text, Videos, Images and PDF Format

Academic Year:



English and Hindi

Available Materials:

  • Chapter Wise

  • Exercise Wise

Other Materials

  • Important Questions

  • Revision Notes

Biotechnology and its Applications Chapter at a Glance - Class 12 NCERT Solutions

Biotechnology and its Applications

Biotechnology and its Applications

Competitive Exams after 12th Science
More Free Study Material for Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
Revision notes
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Important questions
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Access NCERT solution For Biology Class 12 Chapter 11 -Principles and Processes in Biotechnology

Question 1:

Can you list 10 recombinant proteins which are used in medical practice? Find out where they are used as therapeutics (use the internet).

Solution 1: 

(i) Diabetes due to human insulin

(ii) Effective treatment of dwarfism using human growth hormone

(iii) Y1H/IX-hemophilia blood clotting factor

(iv) TPA (tissue plasminogen activator) - Heart attacks/stroke

(v) PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) promotes healing.

(vi)Interferon - Used to treat viral infections.

(vii) Interleukin - Boosts the immune system,

(viii) Vaccine against hepatitis B virus - Preventing infection caused by the disease.

(ix) Vaccinate for Herpes - Protection against infectious diseases.

(x) Treatment for cystic fibrosis with DNase I.

Question 2:

Make a chart (with diagrammatic representation) showing a restriction enzyme, the substrate. DNA on which it acts, the site at which it cuts DNA, and the product it produces.

Solution 2: This Restriction Endonuclease has the chemical name Bam H1. An attachment point is at 5'-GGATCC-3'. The cleavage occurs just after a G in both strands of this DNA sequence. It acts on DNA substrates –

Endonuclease Cuts the DNA Strand

Restriction sites at which restriction endonuclease cuts the DNA strand

Question 3:

From what you have learned, can you tell whether enzymes are bigger or DNA is bigger in molecular size? How did you know?

Solution 3:Proteins and enzymes are more prominent than DNA since amino acids, smaller than nucleotides, make up proteins. After undergoing certain modifications, a polypeptide chain becomes a protein. A gene controls the synthesis of an enzyme, which is a protein. The codon is a sequence of three nucleotides that helps code one amino acid, which is then polymerized to form a polypeptide chain, eventually becoming a protein after undergoing certain modifications

Question 4:

What would be the molar concentration of human DNA in a human cell? Consult your teacher.

Solution 4: DNA is present at a molar concentration of 2 mg/ml in human cells.

Question 5:

Do eukaryotic cells have restriction endonucleases? Justify your answer.

Solution 5: The DNA molecules in eukaryotic cells are highly methylated, which means that restriction endonucleases do not exist. DNA is protected from restriction enzymes by methylation. Different strains of bacteria and prokaryotic cells have been isolated as sources of restriction endonucleases.

Question 6:

Besides better aeration and mixing properties, what other advantages do stirred tank

Bioreactors over shake flasks?

Solution 6: For small-scale growth and mixing of materials in laboratories, shake flasks are commonly used. Using biological reactors, biotechnological products can be produced in large quantities. In addition to better aeration and mixing properties, bioreactors also have the following characteristics advantages.

(i) The bioreactor is periodically sampled for small volumes of cultures.

(ii) The foam breaker system uses foam as a control device and the pH control system, which regulates the pH of the fluid during the process.

(iii) With the help of baffles, the bioreactor can perform even mixing and oxygen supply.

Question 7:

Collect five examples of palindromic DNA sequences by consulting your teacher. Better try to create a palindromic arrangement by following base-pair rules.

Solution 7: The DNA molecule contains palindrome nucleotide sequences, identical when read in both directions as 5'-3' or 3'-5'. Restriction enzymes act at these sites.

Below are five palindromic DNA sequence examples:

i. 5' GGATCC 3' ---------3' CCTAGG 5' ---------

ii. 5' AAGCTT 3' ---------3' TTCGAA 5' ---------

iii. 5'ACGCGT 3' ---------3' TGCGGA 5'--------- 5' ACGCGT 3' --------- 3'--------- TGCGCA 5'

iv. 5' ACTAGT 3' --------- 3' TGATCA 5' ---------

v. 5' AGGCCT 3' --------- 3' TCCGGA 5' ---------

Question 8:

Can you recall meiosis and indicated at what stage a recombinant DNA is made?

Solution 8: Meiosis I occurs during Prophase I, when recombination nodules form after the formation of synaptonemal complexes.

Question 9:

Can you think and answer how a reporter enzyme can be used to monitor the transformation of host cells by foreign DNA in addition to a selectable marker?

Solution 9: Transformed cells can be differentiated by detecting their co-response gene (receptor gene) through the activity of a reporter enzyme. Specifically, (3-galactosidase (Lac Z) activity is absent in transformed cells, causing them to appear white. Those that are blue seem to be free of foreign DNA.

Question 10:

Describe briefly the followings:

(a) Origin of replication

(b) Bioreactors

(c) Downstream processing

Solution 10:

(a) Origin of Replication: In the genome, there is a specific sequence from which replication commences, so any DNA fragment linked to this sequence can be made to replicate within the host. The linked DNA contains this sequence as well as a control mechanism for its copy number. Thus, to clone DNA from a target in many copies, one should use a vector whose origin supports cloning multiple copies.

(b) Bioreactor: A bioreactor is a vessel that allows microbes, plants, and animals to convert raw materials into specific products through the action of their enzymes. By using a bioreactor, optimal growing conditions can be achieved, and desired outcomes are achieved. Bioreactors of the stirring type are the most common. Stirred tank bioreactors are typically cylindrical vessels or vessels with curved bases to facilitate mixing. The fanning of sterile air bubbles in the stirred tank bioreactor is responsible for providing clean air to the cells. The stirrer facilitates mixing and oxygenation within the bioreactor. There are several bioreactor components, such as an agitator system, an oxygen delivery system, a foam control system, a temperature control system, and a pH control system.

(c) Downstream Processing: A series of processes are applied to the product before it is made into a ready for marketing product. Separation and purification are two of the main functions. Preservatives are then added to the product. Clinical trials must be conducted on such preparations, as with drugs.

Question 11:

(a) PCR

(b) Restriction enzymes and DNA

(c) Chitinase

Solution 11:

(a) PCR:  The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is an in vitro molecular biology method that combines enzymatic amplification of a single DNA strand and creating millions of copies of the specified DNA sequence in just a few hours (about 2 hours).

PCR consists of three steps:

(i) Denaturing (at 96°C) the double-stranded DNA into single-stranded DNA.

(ii) Annealing of the primer (at 55-65 oC) to ssDNA (single standard).

(iii) Taq DNA polymerase, an enzyme isolated from Thermus aquaticus, synthesized new strands (at 72 oC).

An amplified gene is used to clone the desired gene.

Advantage – Higher productivity, higher efficiency, reduced error proneness, and fewer human errors, cyclic and automated.

(b) Restriction enzymes and DNA – Restriction enzymes cleave DNA by cleaving a specific sequence of bases known as the recognition site, where the restriction enzyme cleaves the DNA strands.

(i) It prevents foreign DNA from entering normal cells by digesting it at various recognition sites. Sites of recognition are palindromic.

(ii) Both endonucleases and exonucleases are present.

(iii) They produce sticky endings. There is a difference between the recognition site and the cleavage site. The restriction enzymes that bacteria produce are therefore thought to serve as a mechanism for defending themselves against viral attacks and removing viral sequences that interfere with their survival.

(c) Chitinase is an enzyme that breaks down the glycosidic bonds in chitin present in fungi and the exoskeleton of certain arthropods and worms to facilitate their digestion or transformation. 

Question 12:

Discuss with your teacher and find out how to distinguish between

(a) Plasmid DNA and Chromosomal DNA

(b) RNA and DNA

(c) Exonuclease and Endonuclease

Solution 12:

(a) Plasmid DNA and Chromosomal DNA

Plasmid DNA

Chromosomal DNA 

1. Self-replicating

Replicates under nuclear control

2. Double stranded in a circular pattern

Linear, circular, or double stranded

3. Does not attach to histones

The protein is associated with histones.

4. Contains a few genes for characteristics such as antibiotic resistance and fertility factor.

Controls the metabolism of cells by controlling the characters and proteins for that purpose.

(b) RNA and DNA



1. Ribonucleic acid, with Pentose sugar in the form of Ribose

The sugar originating from Deoxyribonucleic Acid is called Deoxyribose.

2. Single stranded

Double stranded

3. Transfer information from DNA to proteins

The genetic material that makes up the human body

4. Includes uracil and cytosine as Pyrimidine bases

The thymine and cytosine bases are Pyrimidines


 5. Stability reduced by the presence of 2 ́- OH group of RNA nucleotides

 More stable because of double stranded nature and the presence of Thymine 

6.  RNA polymerase is responsible for synthesis

The product of DNA polymerase

(c) Exonuclease and Endonuclease



1. Remove nucleotides from the ends of the DNA.

Eliminate nucleotides at specific sites within DNA

2. Produce blunt ends.

Creates sticky ends.

3. Pathogens aren't being restricted from entering.

Limit the entry of pathogens.


Action of Exonuclease

 Action of Exonuclease, B. Action of endonuclease


NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 - Free PDF Download

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 11, focuses on Biotechnology: Principles and Processes. The first chapter of the Unit covers the theories and concepts that form Biotechnology’s groundwork and standard practices in the field. Vedantu’s NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Solutions will help you answer the practice exercise questions quickly and understand the theories covered in the chapter and their applications in the real world. A far share of these questions are also frequently repeated in board exams and are essential for the entrance exams as well. These are fundamental lessons that a student will have to learn if they pursue Biology for further studies. This chapter demands a study that is focused on understanding the concepts, the methodology, and the practices. The subject-matter experts at Vedantu have prepared these NCERT Solutions for the convenient learning process of students. So, download the NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 Solutions PDF to master Chapter 11- Biotechnology: Principles and Processes.

Chapter 11 - Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Chapter 11 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes, is based on Biotechnology’s basic concepts, especially the various principles and practices that lay its foundations. This is the first of two chapters in Unit 9 of Class 12 Biology and is the theory part of this Unit.

The focal point of this chapter is the various norms and practices that are used in the field of Biotechnology. Students are expected to grasp some basic knowledge of the field and understand the fundamental concepts behind various common biomedical practices, namely, Recombinant DNA Technology, from this chapter.

Benefits of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology

Biology is a difficult subject but with the help of our carefully curated and well-structured study material, it should become easy for students to understand the concepts rather than memorizing them. The following are some features of our NCERT Class 12 Biology Solutions.

  • Accurate solutions that are curated properly, explained easily, and prepared as per CBSE Guidelines by experts of the topic.

  • The answers are detailed and connected to the theory and concepts in the syllabus.

  • The study material focuses on a problem-based understanding of the underlying concepts covered in the chapter.

  • Our subject experts have covered all the important points in the solutions for the ease of learning of students, thereby, ensuring high scores.

  • The solutions are available online for free download in a PDF Format.

How are Vedantu's Study materials beneficial for exam preparation?

Vedantu's study materials are useful for all students and are optimized for learning of the concepts thoroughly. The solutions for each and every topic are prepared as per CBSE Guidelines. All the answers are ensured to contain the key points that are relevant to the question.

The study materials, solution keys, and other resources cover the sub-topics handpicked from the chapter with the highest relevance. These topics are the ones that have the most weightage in the chapter as well as for the exams. All the content and resources are exam-oriented, with due importance given to relevant topics in the subject.

Our in-house experts are always available round the clock to answer the questions of students. Any doubts regarding any subject can be cleared right away by consulting our faculty. You can download our Vedantu app now and get your doubts cleared right away.


NCERT Solutions play a crucial role in Class 12 exam prep. Start by thoroughly reading the textbook chapter. After that, solve the NCERT questions for Class 12 Chapter 11 - Biotechnology Principle and Processes. You can find detailed solutions on Vedantu, aligning with CBSE guidelines. Download the free NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chapter 11 - Biotechnology Principle and Processes to guide your exam preparation with expert-reviewed answers.

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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 - Biotechnology Principles And Processes

1. What are the Essential Topics in Chapter 11- Biotechnology: Principles and Processes?

As the name indicates, the chapter focuses mainly on the modern-day practical applications of Biotechnology and its developments. The chapter has three sub-sections, and they are:

  • Principles of Biotechnology.

  • Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology.

  • Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology.

2. How many Questions and Exercises of this Chapter are in the CBSE NCERT Textbook?

The chapter Biotechnology: Principles and Processes have 12 questions in the exercises section. The breakdown of these questions are as follows:

  • Short Answers (1 word, MCQ, less than 2 Sentences) -  2 Questions.

  • Long Answers (2 Sentences or more) - 10  Questions.

Most of the questions from this chapter are long, with descriptive or listed answers. There are also diagrams pertaining to processes, structures, and flowcharts that describe various processes. These are important from an examination perspective.

3. How will Vedantu’s NCERT Solutions Help with this Chapter?

The major problem that a lot of students face with biology is the lack of understanding of the concepts. As a subject that is heavily based on learning a significant amount of theory, Biology can be difficult to understand. Most schools focus on pure theory, which means any practical understanding of the concepts will have to come from other sources. Therefore, learning the concepts through understanding them is essential to retain them.

Our NCERT Solutions play a crucial function in this regard. They are prepared and curated by experts who dedicate time and effort to ensure that you understand the concepts. The theory and the solutions are explained in the best way to connect the theoretical knowledge to the answers, helping to understand the concepts better through practice.

4. Where can I find the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11 online?

Vedantu offers the best NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology, Chapter 11. They also provide a PDF of the NCERT solutions created by the professional for the benefit of the students. With the help of these questions, students can ace their exams. Download the important questions PDF at the Vedantu Website or the app free of cost.

5. What are the main topics covered in NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 11?

The main topics covered in Biology Class 12, Chapter 11 are:

  • Principles of Biotechnology

  • Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology

  • Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology

Vedantu ‘s NCERT solutions are prepared by the best teachers in India. These will help the students to have a strong foundation in the theoretical portions of the subject. Download the PDF on the Vedantu website or the app free of cost.

6. Can you please brief the Class 12 Biology Chapter 11?

Chapter 11 of Biology Class 12 is about the techniques used for using living organisms and other enzymes in the production of products that are useful to humans. Check out the Vedantu website to attend free online live classes to gain in-depth knowledge on the concepts and study with the help of NCERT solutions. 

7. Is Chapter 11 of Class 12 Biology important for the board exams?

Yes, Chapter 11 of Class 12 Biology is important to ace the board exams. You have to be well versed in all the concepts to secure a perfect score. Vedantu offers the NCERT solutions Biology Class 12 created by experts for the students to prepare and revise for their exams. Download the NCERT solutions from the Vedantu website or the app for free of cost to prepare for the exams. These questions will help the students in securing a perfect score in the board exams.

8. How is biotechnology useful to humans in everyday life?

Biotechnology plays a major role in the medical and healthcare industries, as they help in the discovery of new medicines for various diseases. To get well versed in all this chapter, students are encouraged to download the NCERT solutions provided by a qualified group of experts. Visit the Vedantu website to stream live online classes and download the PDF for free of cost.