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Food Security in India Class 9 Notes CBSE Economics Chapter 4 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 23rd Jul 2024
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Food Security in India Class 9 Notes Economics Chapter 4 - PDF Download

In Food Security in India introduction, you will get to know that food security does not only mean that your food needs to be secured from contamination. In India, a food security system takes care of the availability, accessibility, and affordability of the food so that people from different financial status have no problem in buying food in India. Food Security in India depends on government vigilance and the public distribution system. When the security of food is threatened, the PDS comes to rescue and sort things out.

You will be studying what food security is. Also, food security officials have to deal with the availability of the food to be given to every person living in India. The administration also takes reasonable care to find out about the extra barriers that the locals are trying to put on the food distribution.

Download CBSE Class 9 Economics Revision Notes 2024-25 PDF

Also, check CBSE Class 9 Economics revision notes for All chapters:

Access Class 9 Social Science Chapter 4 - Food Security In India Notes

Food security normally refers to the availability, accessibility & also affordability of food for people at all times. The poor households are more susceptible to the food insecurity in times of food production problems or the problems with crop distribution. Public Distribution System (PDS) along with the government vigilance usually responsible for ensuring food security for all in the country.

Food Security: Meaning:-

Food is essential for our daily survival. Food security has a deeper meaning to it than just getting two square meals in a day. Broader aspects of food security are-

Availability of the food - This includes production of crops within the country, previous years produce which are present in the government granaries, and imports from other countries.

Accessibility - Every person in the country should also access to food.

Affordability - This means that every person is able to financially meet their dietary needs.

Food Security: Need

  • The downtrodden section of our society is the most food insecure. The population above the poverty line are also food insecure sometimes. This happens when the country face a natural disaster like an earthquake, failure of crops, floods, famine, etc.

  • Ways in which food security can get affected by a calamity:

  • During a natural calamity, production of crops is decreased which in turn creates a shortage of food.

  • Shortage of food causes prices to hike.

  • These high prices cannot be afforded by some of the sections of the society.

  • If these calamities stretched over a long period, it then cause starvation which in turn can take the shape of a famine.

  • Famines are also associated with a massive number of deaths due to the starvation and & accompanied by epidemics caused by contaminated water and food. The immune system is also due to starvation which makes the body prone to many kind of disease. The most devastating famine of India was the famine of Bengal in 1943 which nearly killed over 30 lakh people in the region.

  • Even till now places like Kalahandi and Kashipur (Orissa) are facing similar famine-like conditions for many years. Deaths due to starvation have also been stated from here. Baran district of Rajasthan & Palamau of Jharkhand has also reported starvation deaths which is a concern.

Section of Society which is Food Insecure

  • The worst affected people from food and nutrition insecurity are landless people. They are traditional artisans, and the destitute including the beggars. They are mostly ill-paid. These workers are also engaged in seasonal activities and are paid extremely low wages which do not even properly insure their bare survival. The SCs, STs, and the OBCs who are the poor are often prone to food insecurity. People who have migrated from other areas in search of work are also many times food insecure. Population affected by a natural disaster is also food insecure. Malnutrition is common mostly among women and this remains a matter of grave concern as it increases the risk of newborn child malnutrition manifold.

  • Few states in the country have a large number of food insecure people. These places may be tribal, remote, prone to any kind of natural disasters or economically backward.

India and Food Security

After Indian independence, the country has adopted a new strategy in agriculture called the ‘Green Revolution’ for increasing production of wheat and rice. Indira Gandhi was then the prime minister of the country. She also released a special stamp bill which was entitled as ‘wheat revolution’ in the year 1968. The success of wheat revolution was then used as a model for rice revolution. However the increase in the food grains was disproportionate. 

The highest growth was then achieved by the states of UP and Maharashtra in terms of the wheat production while West Bengal & Uttar Pradesh recorded significant production of rice.

Since the green revolution which ca,w in early 1970, the country has been able to avoid famines & adverse weather conditions. India has also become self-sufficient in crops during the last 30 years.

Buffer Stock

Buffer stock is normally the stock of food, primarily rice and rice which is procured centrally through the Food Corporation of India. FCI now purchases the grains from the farmers of the states where it is grown in surplus. The farmers, then in turn, get a price known as Minimum Support Price or the MSP which the government decides in every financial year before the commencement of the sowing season. The purchased food grains are then stored in the government granaries. The grains are usually distributed amongst  financially weaker sections of the society at a much lower price than the market rate which popularly known as the issue price. The buffer stock then also helps to resolve problems in periods of natural calamities.

Public Distribution System

  • The food which FCI procures is distributed by government by regulated ration shops. This is referred as the Public Distribution System. Ration shops are also widely present in localities, towns, villages and cities.

  • There are nearly 5.5 lakh ration shops in the country. They are known as Fair Price Shops. They usually keep stock of food grains, sugar & kerosene at a much lower price than the market price. Any family which has a ration card can also buy a stipulated amount of ration from the shops. There are three different kinds of ration cards-

  1. Antyodaya cards for the poorest people.

  2. The BPL cards for the ones which are below the poverty line.

  3. The APL cards for every single citizen.

  • Rationing was introduced in India in the year 1948 because of the Bengal famine. It was done due to an acute food shortage during the 1960s which was prior to Green Revolution. In wake of high poverty in the mid- 1970s, the Public Distribution System for food was strengthened, and a new Integrated Child Development Services were introduced in 1975 and Food For Work was also introduced. Over the years several other new programs were launched to restructure the already present administrative programs. At present, there are many poverty alleviation programmes run by Government . Employment programmes have also resulted significantly to food security by increasing the income of the poor.

Status of Public Distribution System in India (At present)

Initially the Public Distribution System was universal. There was no discrimination b/w the poor & the non-poor but currently, the policy has also been revised to make it more efficient & targeted to provide benefits to the remote and backward areas. It mainly targets poor in the country. In the year 2000 two schemes were launched - The Antyodaya Anna Yojana & the Annapurna Scheme. The PDS has been facing various criticism on several grounds in past years. There were instances of hunger being prevalent in the country in spite of overflowing granaries in godowns.

Cooperative & Their Role in Food Security

In the southern and western part of India, the cooperatives also play a significant role in food security. Cooperatives have been set up to sell low priced goods to the poor people. In Tamil Nadu out of all the ration shops, around 94% of them are being run by the cooperatives. Mother Dairy in Delhi is striving to provide milk & vegetables to consumers at low rates as decided by the government of Delhi. Amul is another cooperative in the milk products sector from Gujarat. It has brought about the White Revolution, which is popularly known as the ‘Operation Flood’ in the country. The Academy of Development Science in Maharashtra has started a network of NGOs that are aiming at setting up grain banks in different regions. The grain bank program is acknowledged as one of the most successful and innovative food security programs.

Importance of Food Security in India

A lot of students will be thinking, why does food need security? Well, there are so many answers to this one question. But we will keep things simple. During a calamity such as a drought, the farms are unable to produce crops that can be yielded and sent to the food market. As a result, there is a shortage of food. The prices started to go up, and people are now starving. Massive starvation can lead to famine, which means thousands of people die from starvation. That’s why food needs to have security, which is given by the government.

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The Food Security in India Class 9 Important Notes will help you revise all the important points you need to have before you start writing answers in your exam. From the Class 9 Economics Food Security Notes, you will get to know about food insecurity. This term is quite important as India is one of the hardest-hit countries in terms of food insecurities. Food insecurity means food is not being delivered to people. Thus they suffer from malnutrition and other diseases related to a deficiency of nutrients and carbohydrates.

The problem of food insecurity in India has more to do with the differences in the social community. The people from backward classes have small lands which are poor in terms of fertilizers and natural nutrients. Thus, the crops which they grow on the ground are mostly inedible and, if consumed, could be dangerous.

Fun Facts About Food Security in India

India has its system to fight the food shortage during the drought months. This system is called buffer stock, where people stock up food grains such as wheat and rice. India's government stores these stocks with the help of its Food Corporation of India division. These stocks are purchased by the farmers who have surplus production. The farmers get to receive money on the pre-decided price, known as the Minimum Support Price (MSP). This is the minimum price which the government has to pay the farmers in return for their yield. This food can then be used by the government during calamities such as floods, droughts, landslides, etc.

Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Notes

Food is one of the essential parts of our lives; without food, no human being or even animal will survive. In addition to this, food is the only thing that can provide us with all the necessary nutrients and carbohydrates that our body needs to function correctly. The Food Security in India Class 9 Notes by Vedantu details how the food industry has changed over the period and how food security plays a vital role in keeping up with the hygiene of the people living in India. This chapter states all the necessary things you need to know about India's food security and some of the facts that might amaze you.

What are the Benefits of Referring to Vedantu’s Revision Notes for Class 9 Social Chapter 4 Food Security in India?

Embarking on the exploration of Class 9 Social Science, Chapter 4 - "Food Security in India," students often seek effective study aids to unravel the complexities of this critical topic. Vedantu's Revision Notes for this chapter stand as a guiding beacon, providing an array of benefits to learners. In this introduction, we'll delve into how these revision notes offer invaluable assistance, facilitating a deeper and more nuanced understanding of the intricate dynamics surrounding food security in India.

  • Provides quick, clear summaries of key concepts.

  • Simplifies complex topics for better understanding.

  • Efficient tool for last-minute exam prep.

  • Enhances retention of crucial information.

  • Supports effective exam preparation with key points and tips.

  • Saves time by consolidating information.

  • Prioritizes important topics and questions.

  • Offers practical examples for real-world connections.

  • Boosts student confidence for exams.


For an enhanced comprehension of this subject, NCERT - Class 9 Social Chapter 4 - Food Security in India thoughtfully prepared by experienced educators at Vedantu is your invaluable companion. These notes break down the complexities of Food Security in India into easily digestible sections, helping you grasp new concepts and navigate through questions effortlessly and quickly in the last minute as well. By immersing yourself in these notes, you not only prepare for your studies more efficiently but also develop a profound understanding of the subject matter.

FAQs on Food Security in India Class 9 Notes CBSE Economics Chapter 4 (Free PDF Download)

Q1. Why is it Essential to have Hygienic Food?

Ans: In case you are eating food that is not safe to eat, you are getting yourself in the risk of allowing harmful bacteria inside your body. In addition to this, these bacteria can make you sick, and in the worst case, you need to be hospitalized. Every year thousands of people suffer stomach pain due to eating bad food that is not suitable. You need to make sure that you are eating fresh food. Moreover, food poisoning can cause people to suffer from dehydration and other diseases like gastroenteritis.

If you are not getting hygienic food, you won’t be getting the required calories that your body needs to function correctly. As a result, you will feel fatigued and loss of breath in a short time, which will cause a loss of stamina.

Q2. What is the Difference Between Best Before the Date and Use Before Date?

Ans: If you think about it, seeing your food getting wasted is one of the most painful things in the world. The food which you prepared all by yourself when becomes noticeable is when you feel the importance of keeping food clean and cooking it freshly. Your best before dates and use before dates are two completely different things. If you have food that comes with a use before date, you need to use it before that particular date, or it won’t be edible.

On the other hand, best before dates are usually your guidelines, which tells you that the food product will remain in the best condition possible by this particular date. You can eat that food even after the date has gone, but you might not be getting all the nutritional values written on the packaging of the food product. A high-risk food such as meat comes with use before date, and bread comes with the best before date on the packaging.

Q3. What are the basics of Food Security as per Chapter 4 of Economics of Class 9?

Ans: Food Security in India talks about all the foods that need to be secured from contamination. Apart from this, the chapter even talks about the food security system available in India. It also looks at the food accessibility, availability, and affordability of food in India from different backgrounds of people. It is known that Food Security in India is completely controlled by the government and the public distribution system (PDS). When the food security in India gets threatened, the PDS sorts everything out.

Q4. How can I access revision notes for Chapter 4 of Class 9 Social Science?

Ans: While studying for your examination it is important for you to make notes. If you have notes from the class then it will be a bonus for you. However, even if you don't have class notes, Vedantu provides you with revision notes that you can refer to for Free. These revision notes are written by subject experts in an easy-going language that will help you understand and learn the chapter better. You can even download the PDF for revision notes for Chapter 4 of Economics of Class 9.

Q5. What is the importance of Food Security in India?

Ans: There are many reasons why we need food security in India. Out of which, one of the reasons is due to droughts. During a drought, the farmlands become unable to produce yielded crops that can be sent straight to the market. Due to this, a shortage of food occurs in the market. This increases food prices which many people cannot afford. This results in starvation which can lead to famines that can kill more than thousands of people at once.

Q6. How is Food Security secured in India?

Ans: Food Security in India is run by the government. This ensures that food is available to all areas of Indian society. The Indian Food Security system consists of two main components namely Buffer Stock, and Public Distribution System. These two components ensure that there is availability, accessibility, and affordability of food all across the country for all the people. This ensures that food is secured in India for every section of society.

Q7. Where can I download notes for Chapter 4 of Economics of Class 9?

Ans: Chapter 4 of Economics of Class 9 NCERT notes and Solutions PDF can be downloaded through Vedantu for free. NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics covers a wide variety of concepts that you can learn. Vedantu provides you with an opportunity to learn these concepts. Chapter 4 will help you get a total outlook as to what you need to understand and learn about the Food Security System in India. These solutions which are free of cost and questions are extremely important for all CBSE students from the viewpoint of examinations. The solutions are also available on the Vedantu Mobile app.