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Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 3 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 19th May 2024
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Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 3 - PDF Download

The Chapter starts with a story that depicts the raising of voice against social discrimination and division. Then the chapter states the meaning of social divisions and suggests the types of social division. The last part of the chapter explains the effects of democratic politics on social divisions.

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Access Class 10 Social Science (Political Science) Chapter 3 – Democracy and Diversity Notes

Democracy and Diversity

Diversity sets us all apart. It includes our backgrounds, personality, life experiences and beliefs, etc. The people put up their demands to those in power, but different groups have different demands because of they are all different. This leads to the creation of parties and groups based on language, religion, gender, class, etc. However, democracy allows politics to be based on multiple interests thus we can say that diversity allows working of democracy in a better way.

USA Civil Rights Movement

Martin Luther King Jr. led the civil rights movement in USA which lasted from 1954 to 1958. The movement was a struggle for social justice for the Black Americans to gain equal rights under the law in the United States of America. People followed the Gandhian methods of civil obedience against racist rules and regulations.


Social Differences

They are social identities that are based on individual choices and others are present right from the birth. They can either unite or even divide the society, if used for the purpose.


Social Divisions

It is a conflict based on various social inequalities, such as income, religion, lifestyle, etc. They can be divided into the following:

  • Overlapping Differences

  • Cross-cutting Differences


Factors Determining Social Divisions:

  • How citizens comprehend their identity.

  • How political leaders choose to raise the demand for a community.

  • How the government reacts to the community's demand.


Important Questions and Answers

1. What is a homogeneous society?

Ans: A society that has similar types of people without ethnic discrepancies of any kind.

2. What is a Migrant?

Ans: Anyone who moves from one country or region to another for work, studies, etc.

3. What is the black power movement?

Ans: It is a movement that started in 1966 and went on until 1975. It movement advocated the use of violence under necessary conditions to end racism in the USA. Its goal was total racial equality.

4. What do you mean by accident of birth?

Ans: It is the origin of social difference based on the birth.

5. What do you mean by "based on choices"?

Ans: It is the origin of social difference based on the choices people make.

6. How can a social difference lead to a social division? Give an example.

Ans: If the social differences cross each another, it becomes difficult to avoid conflicts between the groups.

This leads to the creation of a ridge known as a social division.

7. What actions were taken against the three Olympians, Smith, Carlos, and Norman by the International Olympic Association?

Ans: Smith and Carlos were suspended from the US team in the Olympics. Norman Peter was not selected for the upcoming Olympic games.

Class 10 Social Science Political Science Chapter 3 Democracy And Diversity Notes

The Story of Two Athletes 

During the 1968 Olympics when two athletes named Tommie Smith and John Carlos, were called for the medal distribution ceremony, both the athletes wore black gloves on the one hand and raised the hand, making it a fist. They did this while the US National Anthem was played. The two athletes did this on purpose to protest against the social discrimination that was going on in the US. They were trying to attract the attention of all the people of the world towards the social discrimination in the United States. The Black gloves and the closed fist symbolized the power of black people or Black Power.

(Image to be added soon)

What is Social Division?

Social Division is also termed as social difference or social discrimination. It is the difference that is created in society. This difference can be based on gender, colour, family background, caste, and many other criteria. These differences create inequality in society. The differences create a lot of hatred and harsh feeling in the minds of the people. 

Origin of Social Difference

Social discriminations are made basically in two ways, i.e., Accident by birth or By choice. Accident by Birth means here the discrimination is done based on birth. For example, if a person is short, born black, or has certain physical disabilities, he/she is discriminated against. This is not our choice if we are born black or are of short height. It is by birth, and we cannot do anything about that. There are certain discriminations made which are based on caste. Suppose if a child is born in a lower caste, he/she is discriminated against. This is called an Accident by birth discrimination.

On the other hand, Some differences are according to our choices. There can be discrimination for faith in god. There can be discrimination against certain religions. These choices of ours form a social group and lead us to discriminate. 

Types of Social Difference

Social difference simply means that one group of people are given more attention or preference than the other. Social discrimination or differences can be of two types: Overlapping Differences and Cross-cutting Differences.

Overlapping Differences: Overlapping differences create a situation of tension and deep divisions in society. In this type of difference, one category of division becomes more important or essential than other kinds of division. People start feeling a sense of detachment from the community they belong to. They start to think that they belong to another community. 

Cross-Cutting Differences:  This is another type of social difference. In cross-cutting difference, it so happens that a group that shares a common interest in a topic or an issue can be on a different side in case there is another issue. 

Politics And Social Difference

Politics is something that should be done on democratic terms. There should not be any discrimination in politics or political parties. There should be equality in politics. If political parties start to compete based on some social differences, it can lead to a devastating situation. The combination of politics and the social difference can prove to be very dangerous and disastrous for a nation. 

Democracy And Diversity Class 10 Notes

Students in Class 10 sometimes get confused about the social divisions and democracy. They don’t know the meaning of social discrimination and how democracy responds to it. The Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 Notes are the perfect solution to solve the doubts that students have regarding democracy and diversity. The Democracy and Diversity Notes by Vedantu explain the meaning of democracy and social divisions. Further in the chapter, the various types of social divisions are discussed in detail. Then moving further into the chapter, you will learn how democratic politics is affected by social differences. 

The Notes of Civics Class 10 Chapter 3 cover all the topics under the chapter and provide detailed information about the chapter to the students. Here we have summarised the chapter for the benefit of the students. The students can access and download the Class 10 Civics Chapter 3 Notes PDF for free here. The Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes give an overview of the chapter to the students. The notes cover all the topics that are given in the chapter. They also come with answers to all the questions given in the exercise of the chapter. These notes teach the students the importance of democracy and all about diversity and social divisions.

FAQs on Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 3 (Free PDF Download)

1. What are the factors that affect the politics of social difference?

The three significant factors that determine the outcome of a social difference in politics are: 

  • The first factor is how people recognize themselves or their identities. If people see themselves as unique or singular, it becomes difficult to cope. The interests of the people should complement the nation’s interest. 

  • The second factor is how political parties respond to the demand of communities. 

  • The third and last factor is how the government solves or responds to the different groups’ demands. 

2. How are the Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes helpful?

The Notes of Civics Class 10 Chapter 3 Democracy and Diversity prepared by Vedantu’s experts help the students to understand the actual meaning of democracy and social discriminations. The notes help the students in getting a complete overview of the chapter. These notes come with worked out exercises and other essential questions. A student can access these notes free of cost and will guide you throughout the learning process. These notes are prepared by expert teachers who ensure that they are error-free and of top quality.

3. What was the 'Civil Rights Movement' in the United States? Explain.

In the USA, the Civil Rights Movement started in 1954 and lasted till 1968. The movement refers to a set of events and reform movements led by Martin Luther King Jr. It aimed at abolishing legal racial discrimination against African-Americans and practiced non-violent methods of civil disobedience against those laws and practices which were racially discriminatory. Its aim was to gain equal rights for the Black American under the law.

4. Which type of social difference is more dangerous and why?

When some social differences overlap with other differences, overlapping differences will occur which is dangerous. People will start to have the feeling that they belong to different communities when one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other. Therefore, this might lead to deep social divisions and tensions. For example- In United States, black and white differences became a social division as blacks were poor and landless and they often face injustice and discrimination.

5. How were the Civil Rights Movement and the Black Power Movement different from each other ?

The Civil Rights Movement which started in 1954 and ended in 1968 was led by Martin Luther King Jr. The movement aim was to abolish legal racial discrimination against African-Amercians. It practiced non-violent methods of civil disobedience against the  laws and practices which were racially discriminatory.

Black Power Movement was anti-racist movement which started in 1966 and ended in 1975. It was more of a militant anti-racist movement and if necessary, to end the racism in the United States, it even advocated violence. In 1968 Mexico Olympics, this movement was highlighted when Carlos and Smith wore black socks without shoes at the medal ceremony in order to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States. To understand more on this chapter, you can visit Vedantu.

These solutions are available on Vedantu's official website( and mobile app free of cost.

6. Name five countries of the world which have already faced or are facing the problems of social divisions.

Our country, India is facing the problems of social divisions that are based on caste, religion, gender, etc. Even now, Sri Lanka is facing the problem of language, cultural and religious diversities. United Kingdom already faced the problem of religious divisions between Protestants and Catholics in Ireland. The problem of linguistic diversities was faced by Belgium and it has been resolved by the formation of a community government. The problem of racial discrimination was faced by the African-Amercians in USA.

7. What will I learn from the Chapter 3 of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Political Science?

Students will be able to learn about various topics and sub topics from Chapter 3 (Democracy and Diversity) of Political Science from Class 10. The first topic is about a Story from the Mexico Olympics. The second topic is Differences, similarities, divisions. Under this, students will get to know about Origins of social differences as well as Overlapping and cross-cutting differences. The third topic is Politics of social divisions. Under this topic, students will get knowledge on Range of outcomes and the Three determinants.