From Hunting-Gathering to Growing Food Class 6 Notes History Chapter 2 - PDF Download
During prehistoric times, Hunters and gatherers had to be always on the move to save themselves and find food. By doing so, they were discovering new lands and were also discovering different resources. This chapter goes in-depth about how people go searching for food and farming practice was started and such. Students need to understand why people moved from place to place as it showed the discovery of land, and that's how people started occupying different areas. With people continually moving that also lead to roads and ways for people to follow one another.
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Access CBSE Class 6 History Chapter 2 - From Hunting-Gathering to Growing Food
1. This chapter tells about the transformation of the human habit of collecting food. This transformation started with hunting-gathering and moved to grow food. In the early period, people used to gather food by hunting and gathering. They depended upon other animals and plants to meet their food requirements. Gradually, as civilization started, people started realizing the need of growing food. The hunting and gathering of food were entirely resourcing constraints. So, they learnt to grow food.
2. Lives of the Earliest People:
Around two million years ago, people used to hunt and gather only as far as the way of acquiring food was concerned. During this, wild animals were hunted and fish and birds were caught. Other than this fruits, roots, nuts, seeds, leaves, stalks and eggs were collected by them for eating. People at that time used to travel from one place to another. The reasons for travelling are given below:
i. The resource was limited to one particular place. when the resources were exhausted then they used to move to another place.
ii. Mostly they were dependent upon other animals. As animals also moved from one place to another for their needs of food, so do human beings.
iii. Water was an important requirement for plants, people and animals in order to survive. The source of water was rivers, lakes and streams. Therefore human beings had to travel long distances in search of water in the dry season.
4. Sources of Information About the Earliest People
i. The archaeologists have found things that resemble weapons and tools used by hunters and gatherers.
ii. Early people made various tools used for hunting and gathering from stones, woods and bones.
iii. Archaeologists have also found some stone tools which tell the lifestyle of the earliest people.
iv. Apart from the above-mentioned tools, some of the stone tools were used to cut down wood. Wood was used to light fire.
v. Their huts and tools were made up of wood.
vi. Archaeological evidence shows, human beings that time used to live were on the banks of rivers, lakes and streams.
vii. They used to search for a place where sufficient availability of stones, wood and food was present.
5. Hunting-Gathering to Herding
A change in the climatic condition in the world around 12,000 years ago made the weather condition warmer than earlier. Grasslands were developed in many parts of the world. The number of animals like deer, goat, sheep and cattle increased due to the increase in grasslands. People by now had learnt about the food habits and breeding seasons of these animals. Fishing was also a very popular activity at that time.
6. Development of Farming and Herding:
Various grain bearing grasses grew naturally on the subcontinent which included mainly wheat, barley and rice. These grains were selected normally by women and children. They also tried to make themselves familiar with the ins and outs of basic farming. In this way the men became farmers. Taming of animals was done by the people. The first animal which was domesticated by men was the dog. Later they started domestication of sheep, goat, and cattle as well. In this way men started herding.
7. Starting of a New Era
After learning to grow food grains, human beings realized the need for storing them as well. The grains were collected and stocked up for both food and seed. Large clay pots, woven baskets or dug pits were used by them for storage.
Animal products like cows, goats and cattle were nurtured better than they used to give milk and meat as per their requirement. Milk was one of the major sources of food at that time. Plants and animal bones were recovered by the scientists which confirms the settlements of farmers and herders. One of the major sources for archaeologists was the remains of burnt grain.
Traces of huts and houses were also found by the archaeologists in different parts of the subcontinent. Cooking hearths were found.
The stone tools belonging to the Neolithic age were different from that of tools of the Palaeolithic age. The tools of the Neolithic age were polished and given an accurate cutting edge. Some tools were made of bones that belonged to the Palaeolithic age.
In the beginning of the Neolithic age, earthen pots were discovered. People used to cook in these earthen pots. They also had leant to weave clothes at that time, like the major clothes that were used by the people of the Neolithic age was cotton.
Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 2 From Hunting Gathering to Growing Food
From Gathering to Growing Food Summary
This is an essential chapter for students studying History in class 6 because it brings the importance of migration and how it shaped travel for people. After cavemen, we call the people who inhabited earth at the time as hunters and gatherers. The people then were named so because of their wild hunting habits where they would hunt for wild animals, fishes, birds, nuts, fruits etc. These people couldn't stay in one place because they would exhaust all the resources available in the land after a certain period. Now also to hunt animals that would be on the move always was another reason for them to move around often. At the time getting fresh water was also a problem so they would be on the search always and trying not to exhaust the water of one place either.
How Do We Know About Their Existence?
Archaeologists have found the various tools that they used, which were made of wood, stone and bone which stood the stand of time. These tools were used for hunting purposes, chopping up the meat, making clothes out of animal fur and chop plants. These resources were found mostly in places near water bodies and caves because these areas had more stone for them to make tools out off. Traces of ash have also been discovered proving that they discovered fire and probably used it to scare away animals, for heat and to cook their food.
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Beginning of Farming and Herding
According to a study, there was a substantial climatic change in the world, and this had created a lot of grasslands around the entire world. So this, in turn, created a phenomenon where several animals were able to survive off the grasslands. So this is when people started to consider herding and farming.
Farming started when people discovered all the crops that could be grown on these lands, such as wheat, barley and rice, and all these crops led to farming. The first animal to be appropriately tamed was a dog, and it was used to take care of the cattle. People started taking in different animals such as sheep, goats and cows to herd and rear.
A Settled Life
Archaeologists have found different types of huts and various houses in these places that show these people have had a sedentary life. Cooking Hearths were discovered both inside and outside the house, and archaeologists assume that they would cook wherever based on the weather condition. The tools found were excellent cut and well-polished which were made for people to hunt down animals and also for cutting up things. Different types of cooking utensils were also found like earthen pots which must have been kept for storing items or also as a decorative item.
This was one of the first places where people started to farm and grow crops on a proper scale. Different animals were also reared for the first time. Crops like barley and rice; animals grew were goats and sheep. Here people used to carry out rituals for people who died, and they used to bury goats with them. Lots of burial sites have been found at this place. The houses found here were in cubical shapes.
From Hunting-gathering to Growing Food Class 6 Notes CBSE History Chapter 2 has been a fascinating exploration of humanity's transition from hunting and gathering to the revolutionary practice of agriculture. We have delved into the profound changes this shift brought about in our way of life, including settlement, the birth of civilizations, and the development of diverse cultures. These Class 6 CBSE History notes have provided essential insights into this pivotal moment in human history, offering students a valuable resource for understanding the foundations of our modern world. We encourage you to continue your historical journey, armed with the knowledge gained from these notes, and to explore the rich tapestry of our past with curiosity and enthusiasm.
FAQs on From Hunting-gathering to Growing Food Class 6 Notes CBSE History Chapter 2 (Free PDF Download)
1. Why were the earliest people on the move?
These earliest people used to move around for several reasons. The reasons are as follows-
The method of extracting resources was very primitive, unlike modern times, so what that meant was resources would be depleted fast. So to save resources and to make sure they never run out, they would migrate from place to place.
Hunting was their main occupation and animals migrate a lot too. So to keep pace with animals, they would move around and try and follow the animals too.
Based on the season and weather condition of the place they would move.
A lot of hunters would settle on the banks of water bodies, and when summer would dry these water bodies, they would have to move.
2. Is studying about Hunters and Gatherers relevant?
Yes, students must understand how early migrations began and why it began. This gives them a basis of understanding of where our forefathers would live and their reason for living so different from today's time. It helps students to understand how farming started. Students will also learn about how the people went from hunting and gathering to become settlers and why that has become the norm even now. All this History has shaped the future that is the present now and gives us our answers for our way of living now.
3. How did hunter-gatherers become farmers?
Hunter-gatherers become farmers to fight the change in the climate. They went from one place to another place in search of food. They moved to those places where edible plants, seeds, vegetables and fruits were grown. These hunter-gatherers decided to grow their own crops and cultivated the land. And thus, they turned into farmers.
4. Why were people who grew plants forced to live in the same place for a long time?
People who grew plants or crops were forced to live in the same place for a long duration due to the following reasons.
They had to protect their crops and plants from invaders like birds, animals, etc so they could grow properly and ripen on time.
Their lives were settled. They were leading a civilized life.
People grow plants to meet their daily requirements. They cultivated crops to get food on a daily basis and to run their livelihood. For detailed notes on Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 2 visit Vedantu.
5. How were farmers and herders different from hunter-gatherers?
The farmers and herders were different from hunter-gatherers in the following ways:
They began to live a settled life instead of living life like nomads. Nomadic lives were lived by hunter-gatherers.
They started to produce their own food. The domestication of animals and plants became a part of their lives.
Farmers and herders built numerous types of houses in their locality. They used different types of tools that were used by people from the early Palaeolithic stage. These tools were polished and sharp so they could cut things. They used mortars and pestles to crush and grind materials.
Farmers used to cook food properly before eating. Whereas, hunter-gatherers ate raw food.
6. How did climate affect the lives of humans?
The changes in the climate were seen around 12,000 years ago. The climate shifted towards warm. Many grasslands originated on the surface along with animals and plants. Early humans found some places where edible plants were grown. They were fascinated by how seeds separate from stalks and fell on the surface. They wondered how new plants sprouted and developed. Thus, they became farmers to understand these changes. With time, they became experienced hunters and started to rear animals like sheep, goats, etc.
7. Why do archaeologists think that the people of Mehrgarh were hunters?
According to archaeologists, people who lived in Mehrgarh were hunters as they have found bones and other dead remains of wild animals such as pigs and deers while excavating on lowermost levels of the ground. However, they found skeletons of sheep and other cattle on the upper surface of the ground.
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