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NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Chapter 4 - Food Security In India

Last updated date: 09th Apr 2024
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NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics Chapter 4 - Food Security in India PDF Download

Social science is a bit of a boring subject for young students. However, it is very important to learn history, politics, financial matters in Economics, etc. So, to get rid of all these worries, NCERT Solutions is the simplest way to make the students understand and learn as easily as they can. These books were prepared by Superior trainers who have sound knowledge on the particular subject.


NCERT Solutions For Class 9


Class 9 Social Science Economics

Chapter Name:

Chapter 4 - Food Security in India

Content Type:

Text, Videos, Images and PDF Format

Academic Year:



English and Hindi

Available Materials:

Chapter Wise

Other Materials

  • Important Questions

  • Revision Notes

The NCERT Solutions ch 4 eco Class 9 he's outside available with plenty of solid question papers so that the students can learn how the questions can be prepared in the examinations and how to present the exact answers for those questions etc. Subjects like Science, Maths, English, Hindi and Social Science will become easy to study if you have access to NCERT Solution for Class 9 Science, Maths solutions and solutions of other subjects. You can also download NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Maths to help you to revise complete syllabus and score more marks in your examinations.

Topics Covered Under Chapter 4 of Class 9 Social Science Economics 

The following are the important topics that are covered in the syllabus of Class 9 Chapter 4, “Food Security in India”. 

  • Overview of food security

  • What is food security

  • Need for food security

  • Reasons for food scarcity

  • Food security in India

  • Buffer stock

  • Public distribution system

  • Role of cooperatives
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Access NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science (Economics) Chapter 4 – Food Security in India

1. How is food security ensured in India?

Ans: Food security in India is ensured when three dimensions of food security are taken care of. The three dimensions are:

  1. Availability of food – Presence of enough food for each and every citizen. 

  2. Accessibility of food – When there is no barrier to access food.

  3. Affordability of food – The Capability of all persons to buy quality food.

2. Which are the people more prone to food insecurity?

Ans: A large section of people suffer from the insecurity of food and nutrition in India. The worst affected groups are:

  • In rural parts, traditional artists, traditional services providers, landless, beggars and self-employed workers.

  • People who are employed in ill-paid occupations and labourers engaged in seasonal activities (in the urban areas).

  • People who belong to the backward sections of society, SCs, STs and OBCs.

  • People who belong to economically backward states with a high incidence of poverty, tribal and remote areas and regions which are more prone to natural disasters.

  • People who are affected by natural disasters have to migrate to some area for work.

  • Many pregnant and nursing mothers, and children under the age of 5 years.

3. Which states are more food insecure in India?

Ans: There are many economically backward states with high poverty and more food insecurity in India. The states like Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh (eastern and south-eastern parts), Orissa, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, some parts of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Maharashtra have the highest number of food-insecure people in India.

4. Do you believe that the green revolution has made India self-sufficient in food grains? How?

Ans: The Green Revolution was introduced in the 1960s so that Indian farmers can cultivate (HYVs) seeds. The HYVs which are coupled with chemical fertilisers and pesticides has led to a growth in the productivity of food grains, helping India to attain self-sufficiency in food grains. Because of the Green Revolution, India has avoided famine, during adverse weather conditions.

5. A section of people in India are still without food. Explain?

Ans: Despite a large increase in food grain production, we find people without food in India. Poor people suffer from chronic hunger. They find themselves unable to buy food. More than one-fifth of the country’s population suffers from chronic hunger.

6. What happens to the supply of food when there is a disaster or a calamity? 

Ans: When a disaster or a calamity occurs, then the production of food grains decreases in the affected areas, which creates a shortage of food in the area. Since there is a food shortage, the prices go up. The raised prices of food affect the capacity of common people to buy the same. When the calamity occurs in an area that is spread widely or over a long period of time, it may cause a situation of starvation. Massive starvation has the capability to take the form of a famine.

7. Differentiate between seasonal hunger and chronic hunger?

Ans: The differences between seasonal and chronic hunger are given as below:

Seasonal hunger

Chronic hunger

Seasonal hunger is basically associated with cycles of food growing and harvesting, this is prevalent in rural areas because of the seasonal nature of agricultural activities and in urban areas because of the casual labour.

Chronic hunger is caused due to inadequate consequences of diets, persistently in terms of quality and quantity.

For example, there is less or no work for construction labour during the rainy season.

For example, the poor suffer from chronic hunger because they have very low income which results in the inability to buy food for survival.

8. What has our government done to provide food security to the poor? Discuss any two schemes launched by the government?

Ans: Food security is ensured by the Government of India, by a carefully designed food security system. This system is consisting of two components:

  1. Having and maintain a Buffer Stock of food grains,

  2. Distribution of these food grains among the poorer sections of the society with the help of a Public Distribution System (PDS).

The Government has launched several Poverty Alleviation Programmes (PAP) that includes a component of food security. Some of these programmes are – Food-For-Work (FFW), Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY), and Mid-Day Meals etc.

Two schemes launched by the Government of India to provide food security are:

  • Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY): In December 2000, this scheme was launched. Under this, one crore of the poorer among the Below Poverty Line families, covered by the Public Distribution System (PDS) was identified. 25 Kg of food grains were made available to each of the eligible families at a highly subsidized rate. The quantity was enhanced from 25 kg to 35 kg, almost after 2 years. In June 2003, and August 2004 respectively, 50 lakh families were added by the government to this scheme twice.

  • Food for Work (FFW): In November 2004 this programme was launched, for 150 most backward districts of the country. The main objective of this scheme was to focus on the identification of the generation of supplementary wage employment. This scheme is for all rural poor who are willing to do unskilled labour. In return for their work, the workers are supplied food grains or money as they like.

9. Why buffer stock is created by the government?

Ans: A buffer stock, is a reserve of food grains that are created by the government to distribute the food grains in the food-deficit areas and among the poorer section of society at a price that is very lower than the market price. A buffer stock helps resolve the problem of shortage of food during periods of calamity or adverse weather conditions.

10. Write notes on:

(a) Minimum support price

Ans: Minimum Support Price (MSP) – This is the price at which the government purchases food grains, wheat and rice specifically from the farmer to create a buffer stock. MSP is announced by the government every year before the sowing season in order to give incentives to the farmers so that there is a rise in the production of the desired crop. The growth in the MSPs led to the rise in maintenance cost of gaining food grains by both the government and the farmers.

(b) Buffer stock

Ans: Buffer Stock – Foodgrains stock is called buffer stock, especially the wheat and rice that the government gets from the Food Corporation of India (FCI). In those states which have these cereals in surplus, the FCI tend to buy these grains directly from the farmers. The food grains purchased, are kept in big granaries and are called Buffer Stock. The concept of buffer stock is a step taken by the Government of India, to ensure food security in the country.

(c) Issue price

Ans: Issue Price – To help the poor section of the society, the Government of India provides them food grains from the buffer stock at a price that is much lower than the market price. This subsidized price is known as the Issue Price.

(d) Fair price shops

Ans: Fair Price Shops – The food grains collected by the government through FCI is distributed through ration shops to the poor section of the society. The Ration Shops provide food grains to the poor people through these shops at a reasonable price compared to the market price which is very high. Those families who have a ration card can get a specific amount of sugar, food grains, kerosene etc. every month from the ration shop at a fair price.

11. What are the problems of the functioning of ration shops?

Ans: There are many problems related to the functioning of ration shops:

  • There are a large number of homeless poor who fail to get ration from these shops. Since ration cards are issued only to those people who have their proper residential addresses.

  • The owners of ration shops sell ration in the open market at higher prices.

  • At times, shopkeepers make wrong entries in the ration cards.

12. Write a note on the role of cooperatives in providing food and related items. 

Ans: The cooperatives play an important role, particularly in the southern and western parts of the country, as far as food security is concerned in India. The cooperative societies have set up shops to sell goods to poor people at reasonable prices. For example, in most of the fair price shops operating in Tamil Nadu, 94% are being run by cooperatives. In Delhi, Mother Dairy provides milk and vegetables to the people at an affordable rate, the rates are already decided by Delhi Government. This has brought the White Revolution to the country. There are many cooperatives and NGOs which are working intensively in this direction.

Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 Food Security in India Class 9 Solutions PDF

We cannot expect all the students in your class to have the same level of IQ. So all the students cannot be able to understand at once. One may be a bit faster and the other may be a bit slower. And even the teacher also cannot be able to explain a single lesson for each student separately.

Hence, the NCERT Solutions of Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 PDF will act as a great companion to the student who wants to have a revision of class, to have a detailed study on every concept with several examples and scenarios. As it is providing the PDF for free download, the students can utilize this opportunity to take a PDF and keep it with them for recollecting the concepts and to revise the questions and answers during examinations.


Food Security in India Class 9

The students of the 9th class will learn the value of food in this chapter. Food security in India deals with availability and affordability. The chapter explains how to give importance to food; it's not about the production of food; it also explains the supply of food to all the citizens of a Nation. Because the common man can't be able to effort high-quality food products because of his financial status. The students will know about the accessibility of the food along with the availability and affordability. Because all three constitute food security. NCERT Solutions explain the reasons behind the question, why Food Security in India is so precious?

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 4 try to explain every concept of Food Security in India's lesson with short stories like tales for the students to understand enthusiastically. We can't fix it as a story; it is also like a scenario or daily routine activity, etc., which should be realistic. Students can learn the consequences of food security during pandemic times, natural calamities, recession, etc. The stories like the students to know that the people who are affected by the lack of food security. It creates an idea and develops the vision of students, how people are suffering from the insecurity of food and how the students need to react to avoid these situations as next-generation superheroes.

Economics Class 9 NCERT Solutions Chapter 4 gives a brief idea about the meaning, importance of Food Security in India. Also, it gives the awareness of the consequences of insecurity among the people. Besides all these, the chapter also highlights the role of government and the current scenario in the nation. Students are taught to be, how to collect the data, and how to attain the generalized value by using statistics? From these values of statistics, what are the measures that the government is taking to provide sufficiency and balance food security to the country?

Class 9th Economics Chapter 4 provides the information in a perfect way about government schemes like the Annapurna scheme, Antyodaya Anna Yojana, etc. under the concept of the national food production program, public distribution system, etc. The government service will continue sleep plotting the graphs and trying effortlessly to develop the major food-producing areas to eradicate the food deficiency. Also, they are conducting awareness programs to the people, students, etc. and keep on monitoring the graphs of the monthly, prime minister, semester, etc.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social science helps the students to learn several concepts to improve the current condition of the nation because food is the basic essential source for every human being. Like a famous saying, all the huge works are to be done to fill a small tummy. So whatever we do for the entire day is to satisfy our hunger needs.

Key Takeaways From Chapter 4 - Food Security in India

The following are some of the most important points that are discussed throughout the chapter. 

1. Definition of Food Security: Food security means ensuring food availability, accessibility, and affordability for all citizens at all times.

2. Reliance on Public Distribution System (PDS): Food security relies on the Public Distribution System (PDS) and sometimes requires government monitoring and intervention.

3. Affected Demographics: Food insecurity primarily impacts people with little or no land, traditional craftspeople, providers of traditional services, petty self-employed individuals, and the poor, including beggars.

4. Structure for Food Grain Availability: Food grain availability is ensured through a two-part structure: (a) a buffer stockpile and (b) a public distribution network.

5. Buffer Stock Definition: Buffer Stock involves the country's purchase of food grains, such as wheat and rice, through the Food Corporation of India.

6. Distribution Mechanism: Public Distribution System (PDS): The food acquired from farmers is distributed by the Food Corporation of India through government-run ration shops, known as the Public Distribution System (PDS).

Key Features

The NCERT solutions are very helpful for the students as listed below:

1. Comprehensive Information: Offers extensive information for each concept in a well-organized, chapter-wise format.

2. Solved and Unsolved Examples: Provides both solved examples for better understanding and unsolved ones for student practice.

3. Free PDF Download: Accessible in a convenient PDF format, available for free download.

4. Expertly Prepared Material: Created by experienced subject experts and skilled mathematicians.

5. Online Doubt Clarification: Trainers are readily available for doubt clarification through online chat on the official website.


So along with the government, every citizen should be responsible and sincere to prevent the society from the insecurity of food as well as one should take the oath of not wasting food. As the students are future sparkles, they should know this and spread it throughout the country. This is the basic thing that students need to learn from the lesson Food Security in India.

NCERT Class 9 Social Science Books Available for:

NCERT Class 9 Social Science (Contemporary India) Chapter Wise Solutions

NCERT Class 9 Social Science (Democratic Politics-I) Chapter Wise Solutions

NCERT Class 9 Social Science (Economics) Chapter Wise Solutions

NCERT Class 9 Social Science (India and the Contemporary World - I) Chapter Wise Solutions

FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Chapter 4 - Food Security In India

1. Describe the Ration Shops.

Ration shops were also a great provision provided by the government. It was initiated at the beginning of 1946 but kept on changing in the 1960s, it is, and so on. The basic aim of these racing shops is to provide the food games, oil, sugar, etc. basic things to the people who are in the below poverty line. But due to the polluted politicians, the purpose of the ration shop was not achieving its ultimate.

2. What are the Additional Schemes Provided by the Government to Prevent Insecurity of Food in India?

Eradicating the deficiency of food production is the basic aim of India. So it introduced several huge schemes and the small privileges for the beneficiary of people. India monitors all the scenarios and keeps on estimating the future and keeping food grains stored to face pandemic situations for natural calamities. Some of them are as follows,

  • Annapurna scheme.

  • Antyodaya Anna Yojana.

  • Public Distribution Scheme.

  • Ration shops / Fair price shops.

  • Minimum Support Price.

  • Issue Price.

  • Buffer Stocks.

3. Why is Ramu unemployed for about four months in a year according to Chapter 4 of Economics Textbook of Class 9?

Agriculture requires a certain time period to grow and yield raw materials. Farmers are very busy during the sowing and harvesting period, they need extra labour. People like Ramu, who is a casual worker, work in the field for a period of eight months a year. That is why Ramu is unemployed for four months. Vedantu provides NCERT Solutions For Chapter 4 Economics Class 9 by answering questions to help the students.

4. What does Ramu do when he is unemployed according to Chapter 4 of Economics Textbook of Class 9? 

Ramu used to work in the agriculture field for eight months, but the other four he works in construction activities or laying bricks in the village. To get well versed in this chapter, download the NCERT Solutions prepared by the experts for students to understand the concepts and answer all the questions in the exam. 

5. What is food security according to Chapter 4 of Economics Textbook of Class 9?

Food security of the nation ensures that all the people in the country can afford, avail and have access to nutritious food all the time for all the people. Whenever there is a problem in the production of food crops, the poor are the most affected people. 

6. How can students prepare for Chapter 4 of Class 9 Social Science?

Students can use the NCERT solutions prepared by Vedantu as guidance material to study these chapters to prepare for their exams. These solutions are prepared by the subject experts to help the students to clear all their doubts and to secure a perfect score in the exams. 

7. What are the benefits of the NCERT Solutions of Chapter 4 of Economics Textbook of Class 9?

NCERT solutions can help the students to get a grip on all the concepts provided in Chapter 4 of Economics Textbook of Class 9. Vedantu ‘s NCERT solutions are concept focused rather than question focused. The main aim of these solutions is to help the kids be well versed in all the concepts. The solutions are free of cost. They are available on both Vedantu’s website( as well as Vedantu Mobile app.