Human Resources Class 8 Notes Geography Chapter 6 - PDF Download
The Ministry of Human Resource Department (MHRD) was established in the year 1985 by the Government of India (GOI) to provide a constructive platform for the development of skills. Every section of the population is important for the overall development of our country. Thus, a foundation has to be constructed to analyze the human resources we have and develop them. By referring to the CBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 6, you will understand how the GOI has taken necessary steps to segregate the population as per gender, age, skill level, education, etc.
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Access Class 8 Social Science - Geography Chapter 06 – Human Resources
Any nation's greatest resource is its people. The skills and abilities of people turn nature into resources.
People are the building block of a country's development.
Human resources are unequally distributed across the globe.
Increased population indicates rich human resources.
Distribution of Population
The distribution of population refers to the pattern in which people are spread across the world.
Population distribution is extremely uneven all over the globe. This is evident from the fact that ninety per cent of the total population of the world resides in only thirty per cent of the land.
Uneven population distribution makes regions of Asia, Europe, North America very crowded while areas like tropical deserts, high mountains, equatorial forests have sparse populations.
China, India, the USA, Indonesia, and Brazil are the top five most populated countries in the world. In fact, sixty per cent of the entire world's population lives in just ten countries.
Most of the population lives in the north of the equator rather than the south.
Three-fourths of the world's population resides in Africa and Asia.
Density of Population
It is a measure of the number of people residing in one unit area of the earth's surface.
It is usually expressible in the unit per sq. km.
The average density of the world's population is 51 people per sq km.
South-Central Asia has the highest population density and Indonesia is the most population-dense country on Earth.
In our country, the density of India's population is 382 people per sq km.
Factors Affecting the Distribution of Population
The geographical factors affecting the distribution of population are as follows—
Topography: Plains like the Ganga plains of India are more suitable for human settlements as they provide facilities for farming and other manufacturing activities. Hence, plains have more population than mountainous regions.
Water: As water is a necessity for survival, people prefer settling in areas with easy availability of freshwater like the river valley regions.
Climate: Extreme hot or cold climates like that of the Sahara desert or polar regions are not favourable for human settlements. They prefer staying in regions with climatic conditions neither too hot nor too cold.
Soil: Fertile soils promote agriculture and hence attract humans. This is the reason why Ganga and Brahmaputra plains, Hwang-Ho plains, plains formed by the Nile river are densely populated.
Minerals: Areas having mineral deposits attract the human population as such areas are good sources of employment. For instance, with the discovery of oil in the middle-east vast populations have settled there.
The social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the distribution of population are as follows—
Social Factors: Areas with better education, housing, health establishments, and other such facilities attract more population. For instance, the city of Pune.
Cultural Factors: Areas with high cultural and religious significance also attract the population. For example, every year several Hindus visit Haridwar and often settle there because of the place’s religious importance for them.
Economic Factors: Industrial areas tend to attract the population because of high employment opportunities.
It is referred to as the change in the number of people during a period.
It is caused due to changes in three factors, viz., birth, death, migration.
Birth Rate: It refers to the number of live births per thousand people.
Death Rate: It refers to the number of deaths per thousand people.
Migration: It is the movement of people in and out of an area.
Natural growth rate refers to the discrepancy between the birth and death rates of a country. For instance, after 1800, better medical facilities, increased food supplies led to a decline in death rates and an increase in birth rates. This resulted in the rising of the world population.
On the other hand, in the case of migrations, either emigrants leave a country or immigrants arrive in a country. This results in a change in the population size of both countries. For instance, the USA gains a huge population by in-migration while Sudan loses a massive part of its population by out-migration.
Patterns of Population Change
Rates of population growth aren’t the same across the world.
Despite the rising population, some countries are not witnessing this growth.
Countries like Kenya have high growth rates while countries like the UK are experiencing a decline in population growth.
There is no relation between the economic stature and population of a nation.
Birth rates and death rates are important factors causing population change.
It refers to the population structure concerning aspects like age, sex, health conditions, income level, occupation, and literacy.
The population composition of a nation can be diagrammatically represented in the form of a pyramid-like structure called a population pyramid which is also known as the age-sex pyramid.
In population – pyramids, the total population is divided into various age groups which are further divided into subcategories like females and males.
The number of children below 15 years represents the birth levels and is at the bottom of the pyramid. And the number of aged people above 65 years represents the death rates and is at the top of the pyramid.
Different countries have different types of population pyramids—
The first type includes the pyramids that narrow at the base because of low birth rates. Due to decreasing death rates it broadens in the higher age groups. For instance, the population pyramid of Japan.
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The second type of population pyramids includes those that broaden at the base because of the high birth rates and decreasing death rates in the younger age group. It happens because not only many children are born but also more of them survive till adulthood. For instance, India’s population pyramid.
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The third type includes the population pyramids of the least developing countries. They widen at the base due to high birth rates and tapper offs in the middle and which indicate increased death rates. For instance, the population pyramids of Kenya and Nigeria.
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Important Questions and Answers
1. How do climate and water affect the distribution of the population?
Ans: Climate and water affect the distribution of the population in the following
i. Climate: Extreme hot or cold climates like that of the Sahara desert or polar regions are not favourable for human settlements.They prefer staying inregions with climatic conditions neither too hot nor too cold.
ii. Water: As water is a necessity for survival, people prefer settling in areas with easy availability of freshwater like the river valley regions.
2. How does migration cause changes in population size?
Ans: Migration causes changes in the population size in the following ways—
i. Emigration: People who leave their country or emigrate are known as emigrants. Countries have experienced a reduction in population size due to emigration. For example, Sudan lost a considerable part of its population due to ongoing conflicts in the country.
ii. Immigration: People who arrive in a new country are referred to as immigrants. Countries have increased population size due to immigration,
for example, Australia.
3. What is the study of the population known as?
Ans: The study of population is called demography. It is essential because the
government of a nation plans sectors such as health, security, environmental
preservation, and education based on the findings of the population study.
4. List the different characteristics of the population composition.
Ans: The different characteristics of the population composition are as follows—
I. Population composition is the population structure of a nation.
II. It takes into account the age and sex composition of the country.
III. It gives an idea about the health facilities available there.
IV. Besides these, population structure also reveals income levels, occupation,and the literacy rate of a population.
V. When population composition is diagrammatically represented, it is called
the population pyramid.
5. How does topography affect population distribution?
Ans: Topography plays a very important role in affecting population distribution.
Plains like the Ganga plains of India are more suitable for human settlements as
they provide facilities for farming and other manufacturing activities. Hence,
plains have more population than mountainous regions.
6. Population growth in the UK is slowing down. Why?
Ans: Population growth varies from country to country and from region to region. Various aspects can affect the population growth in a country. In the UK, population growth has slowed down because of the following reasons—
I. Low death rates
II. Low birth rates
7. Has the world population grown rapidly? If yes, then state why?
Ans: Yes, the world population has grown at an exceeding rate.
The world population has grown rapidly because of the following reasons—
i. Advancements are made in the field of medical sciences and these have resulted in low death rates and high birth rates, thus increasing the growth of the population.
ii. Also, the food supplies have increased over time, contributing to the global population growth.
8. What do you mean by zero growth in population?
Ans: When the birth rate is equal to the death rate, the population does not increase
or decrease. Such a circumstance is called zero growth in population.
9. Why are people considered a valuable resource to a country?
Ans: Any nation's greatest resource is its people. People develop their skills and abilities through experience and knowledge and become an asset to the country. This is how they become the nation’s valuable resource.
10.What happens when people are attracted to particular demography?
Ans: When people are attracted to particular demography, it becomes densely populated. Generally, this attraction is to an area is caused by favourable climatic conditions, an abundance of natural resources, fertile land, etc
Human Resources: Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6 Summary
The population of India is rising at an alarming speed. It also means that the various traits of the population are also altering gradually. To keep a tap on the potential of our human resources, the GOI has developed the MHRD. This resource is one of the strongest pillars supporting the economy of our country. In fact, various organizations from different countries are also showing immense interest in investing in Indian industries and markets. The importance of India’s human resources has been perfectly explained in Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6. Here is a brief description of the important sections of this chapter.
The pattern of distribution of the population in a country is called population distribution. As we all know that the distribution of people living is uneven. The densest populations can be found in the major cities whereas the remotest locations are devoid of any human settlement.
The diversity in the topographies of a country influences the rate of human settlement. Diverse topographies such as high altitudes, deserts, marshes, etc are least populated whereas plain lands, riversides, etc are densely populated. If we check the entire population of the world, more than 60% live in just 10 countries. If you study CBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 6, you will understand the reasons for such diverse population distribution.
The term explains the meaning. The population density of a place is calculated by counting the number of people residing in a unit area. By calculating population density, you can realize how much an area is populated and compare it with the other areas. As per the latest census calculations, the average density of our planet is 51 people living in an area of 1 square kilometre.
Factors Influencing Population Distribution
As mentioned earlier, the density of the population or its distribution depends on various factors. It can be socio-economic or geographical. Let us take a quick look at these factors influencing population distribution as per the Class 8 Social Science Geography Chapter 6.
1. Geographical Features
These features are based on geographical locations and topography.
The preference of the topographical feature of land for settling down focuses on ease of the daily life flow. Hence, plain lands are preferred the most whereas mountainous regions are avoided. Plain lands are easily cultivable and water resources are ample.
Harsh climatic conditions make a place inhabitable. Despite this fact, we find many communities living under harsh conditions by adapting to the challenges. The population in that region is sparse. Deserts, mountains, polar regions, etc are less populated due to hostile climatic conditions. If you follow the Class 8 Geography Chapter 6 Human Resources notes, you will find proper examples to understand this concept.
Fertility has been the priority of the population to grow food. Hence, river banks are chosen for settlement whereas marshlands are not. Most of the ancient civilizations were built beside a prime river to avail of the fertile features of the plains.
As per the Class 8 Social Science Chapter 6, another most important factor is the availability of water sources. Potable and irrigational water sources are mandatory for the growth of a population in a particular area. River valleys or locations near a permanent freshwater resource are always more populated. You will also see seashores that are well populated. This is because of the occupation of the residing people.
Mining areas are comparatively more populated than the diverse topographical areas. This is also because of occupational requirements.
2. Social, Economic and Cultural Factors
As per the Geography Chapter 6 Human Resources, the places with better residential and commercial facilities are densely populated. This is what distinguishes a city from a village.
Places with cultural significance always have a higher density of population.
The availability of employment and earning opportunities decide the density of the population. New Delhi provides employment more than Ghaziabad. This is why it is more densely populated.
FAQs on Human Resources Class 8 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 6 (Free PDF Download)
Q1. Why is a Village Less Densely Populated Even if There are Earning Facilities?
Ans. A village generally offers less earning facilities than a city. Moreover, almost all the occupations need land as a prime resource such as cultivation, husbandry, etc. The distribution of residences and cultivable land is quite diverse.
Q2. Why is the Population Measured?
Ans. As per CBSE Solutions for Class 8 Social Science Geography Human Resources, the population of a country is measured to figure out the characteristics, strengths, and weaknesses of the human resources. The information is then used to develop a better platform for the population to learn new skills and to make lives better.