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The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Notes CBSE History Chapter 4 (Free PDF Download)

Last updated date: 23rd Jul 2024
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Exam Focused Revision Notes for CBSE Class 12 The Age of Industrialisation Chapter 4

In The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Notes PDF, students will acquire knowledge on essential topics about the history of Britain, the history of India, and the first industrial nation. Through these topics, you will understand the starting point of the pattern of industrial change and the reasons behind the conditions that were caused by colonial rule. The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 chapter briefs and explains the scenario before the Industrial Revolution and the reasons behind the changes that occur over time in terms of concepts such as labour, setting up of factories, and more. A few other topics explained thoroughly in the Age of Industrialisation chapter are the market for goods, industrial growth in the market, and more.

Important Topics Covered in the Chapter

  • The emergence of factories

  • The power of steam and hand labour

  • Workers’ lives

  • Colonial industrial development

  • The goods market


"The Age of Industrialisation" is an important chapter in CBSE Class 10 History. It delves into the transformative period of industrialization during the 18th and 19th centuries. This era witnessed significant advancements in technology, production, and social changes, shaping the modern world. The chapter also highlights the impact of industrialisation on India, and Britain.


Understanding the age of industrialisation is crucial as it marks a turning point in human history. It paved the way for technological advancements, transformed economies, and gave rise to social and political changes that shaped the modern world.

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Access Class 10 Social Science Chapter 4 - The Age of Industrialisation Notes

CBSE Class 10 Science History Chapter 4 begins with the outline of two pictures. The primary one was printed on the cover page of ET Paull's music book. It features the Angel of Progress, seen on a winged wheel, symbolising the changing times that ushered in an era of commercial brilliance. The image also features factories and machines- the drivers of industrialization and railways, and camera- the fruits of industrialization. The second picture was published in a magazine called Inland Printers. This picture depicts how the magician of the yesteryears - Aladdin - has been replaced with the magician of the fashionable world - the mechanic. These two pictures associate industrialisation with the spread of progress and modernity.

The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Notes PDF

Students can go through the briefing on every crucial topic enlisted under the Class 10 History Chapter 4 Notes to prepare well for the upcoming board examination.


Proto-industrialisation is a phase That existed way before the inception of factory set-up began in England and the whole of Europe. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants based in Europe requested production for an international market and the rules granted different guilds. Still, the merchants were restricted from expanding their production of specific products. The Proto-industrial system became a network of commercial exchanges which were controlled by merchants.

Hand Labour and Steam Power

During Victorian rule in Britain, the country faced no shortage of human labour. Industrialists faced no problems of any sort with a labour shortage or high wage costs; however, instead of machines, industrialists required large capital investments. There was an increase in demand for labour, and it turned into seasonal in several industries. In all such industries where the production of labour fluctuated with the season, industrialists usually preferred hand labour over the employment of workers for a particular season. However, this affected the workers’ lives through the abundance of labour in the market. After the 1840s, activities such as the widening of the roads, extension of the railway lines, the construction of new railway stations, embarkment of rivers, digging of tunnels dug, and even the laying of drainage and sewers.

Factory Set-Up

During the year 1854, Bombay started and set up the first cotton mill, which later went into production after two years. In 1862, the industries set up four more mills and around the same time, jute mills emerged and were set up in the state of Bengal. However, the first jute mill and industry were set up in 1855, and another emerged after seven years in 1862. During the 1860s, the Elgin Mill was started in North India, in Kanpur, and after a year, the first cotton mill emerged and was set up in Ahmedabad. However, by the year 1874, the first weaving and spinning mill emerged and was set up in Madras to begin production.

The Market for Goods

With the demand for more and new products, the need for advertisements occurred, and these advertisements helped people to market their products and make them appear desirable and necessary. Advertisements tried to shape the minds of viewers and help in the creation of new needs. Today, we are surrounded by these advertisements that appear in magazines, television screens, newspapers, hoardings, and even street walls. From the inception of the Industrial age, advertisements played a significant role in the expansion of the markets for products and even shaping the new consumer culture.

The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth

European Managing Agencies showed keen interest in specific goods or products such as coffee and tea as they established and invested in coffee and tea plantations and also in indigo, mining, and jute. During the late nineteenth century, Indian business people started setting up their industries and produced yarn in the spinning mills by handloom weavers in India or exported it to China. During the Swadeshi movement, the nationalists boycotted foreign clothes, and then during the 1960s, Indian yarn exported to China declined. However, when the First World War ended, industrial growth in India remained slow and stagnant. Industrial production flourished over the years, and after the First World war, Manchester could never recapture and regain its old position in the Indian market.

Benefits of Studying from Vedantu’s CBSE Class 10 Revision Notes on  History Chapter 4 - The Age of Industrialisation

Following are the benefits of studying from Vedantu’s CBSE Class 10 Revision Notes on  History Chapter 4 - The Age of Industrialisation:

  • The notes are curated by subject experts.

  • Students can learn in the comfort of their homes, thanks to the easily downloadable PDF copies of the notes.

  • The notes are completely aligned with the CBSE Class 10 syllabus.

  • Our revision notes come in a simple and easy-to-understand language, making it easier for students to read and revise the topics without any confusion.

Download Class 10 History Chapter 4 - The Age of Industrialisation Notes 

Students can download Class 10 India and the Contemporary World II Revision Notes for other chapters free pdf through the links below.

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Studying "The Age of Industrialisation" in Class 10 History provides insights into the global impact of industrialisation and its implications for different societies, including India's experience under British colonial rule. Students will find details on the same from our CBSE Class 10 Revision Notes on History Chapter 4 - The Age of Industrialisation, which they can easily download from Vedantu’s official website.

FAQs on The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Notes CBSE History Chapter 4 (Free PDF Download)

1. Describe the role of the age of Indian textiles.

In India, before the inception of the machine industries, it was mostly cotton and silk goods that dominated the international market in textiles. However, a variety of Indian bankers and merchants are involved in this network of finance trade such as supplying exporters, finance of production, and even carrying goods. However, during the 1750s, the Indian textile network that was being controlled by the Indian merchants broke down, and the European countries took control through monopoly trade rights and secured a variety of concessions from local courts. There was even a significant shift from the old ports to the new ports as an indication of colonial growth of power. European companies controlled trade which collapsed several trading houses, and to survive, people had to operate within a network that was shaped by the European trading companies.

2. What are the benefits of referring to the age of industrialisation notes?

The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Notes present all the essential concepts and topics in an easy and detailed manner for students to grasp every concept, section, or topic. The primary focus of the Age of Industrialisation Notes is to help students solve the extra inside questions, which are the potential exam questions. The CBSE Class, 10 History Chapter Age of Industrialisation Notes, also aims to help students gain a comprehensive understanding of essential topics like Proto-Industrialisation, Industrial Growth, Market for goods, Labour, and more, as these concepts might comprise essential points that may be useful during revision in short times.

3. How was the life of workers during industrialisation?

As the industries began to expand rapidly, people started flocking to the cities in hopes of employment. Many depended on social contacts to secure jobs at factories. The seasonal nature of work meant that workers were out of work for long periods of time. The wages of the workers fluctuated year to year. Their income depended not only on the wage rate but the period of employment. In periods of the economic slump, the rates of unemployment were very high.

4. How rapid were the changes that occurred during industrialisation?

The pace of industrialisation varied in different sectors. The most rapid growth was seen in the cotton and metal industry in Britain. With the expansion of railways, the iron demand went up, and the metal industry took over the cotton industry. However, the pace of change in traditional industries was still slow. Technological changes occurred slowly as new technology was expensive and took a lot of money to repair if the machinery broke down.

5. How did British manufacturers market their products in India?

When the British manufacturers started selling their products in India, they needed to advertise them to persuade Indian people to buy them. They did this by putting labels on the cloth bundles. The labels were put in to instil confidence in the customers of the quality of the cloth. They also put beautifully illustrated images of Indian gods and goddesses on the labels to make them appealing to the Indian people. Students can find short notes on this chapter from  CBSE Class 10 History revision notes for quick revision on Vedantu, and the revision notes prepared can be downloaded free of cost.

6. How did handloom production expand in the 20th century?

Handloom cloth production expanded rapidly between 1900 and 1940. The reasons for this were -

  • Technological Advancements - Weavers started using looms with fly shuttles which made their work easier and increased production without increasing much cost.

  • The demand for fine weave varieties was always high as they were specialised weaves and were bought by the rich. These weaves that had a human element to them could not be replicated by mills and therefore prospered even when mills came into the picture.

7. Who were the workers in Indian factories during industrialisation?

As more and more factories came into being, the need for workers arose. Most often, the workers in the industrial regions came from the neighbouring districts, like the workers in Bombay cotton mills came from Ratnagiri, while the Kanpur mills got workers from the villages within Kanpur. Many people travelled to Bombay and Calcutta cotton and jute mills in search of employment. Industrials would employ a jobber who would recruit workers from their villages and provide them with employment.