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Lifelines of National Economy Class 10 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 7 (Free PDF Download)

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Lifelines of National Economy Class 10 Notes Geography Chapter 7 - PDF Download

With the rapid development of the country, our need, wants, and demands for the production of services, goods, and movement over space take an increase. Today, the world has turned over into a large production factory with the help of an efficient and fast-moving transport system. Today, India is well-linked with the rest of the world through its stable economy and well-connected transport.

Through the Lifelines of National Economy Class 10 Notes, students will comprehend how the modern means of transport and communication serve as lifelines of our nation and its modern economy.

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Access Class 10 Social Science (Geography) Chapter 7- Lifelines of National Economy Notes

There are three important areas of our planet where we can move goods and services, i.e., land, water, and air. On this basis, transportation can also be classified as land, sea, and air transportation. Let's have a fulsome discussion:


India has one of the world's largest road networks, totaling approximately 54.7 lakh kilometres. The increasing importance of road versus rail transportation is noted below:

  1. Roads are much cheaper to build than rail.

  2. Roads can negotiate higher slopes and can be easily integrated through mountains like the Himalaya.

  3. Roads can cover geographically more difficult areas which cannot be built by rail.

  4. In addition, it offers door-to-door service.

  5. Highway transportation is economical.

  6. Road transport connects train stations, airports and sea ports.

In India, the routes are ranked in the following six classes according to their capacity.

Golden Quadrilateral Super Highways: Golden Quadrilateral is a system of motorways connecting the four main metropolitan cities of India, namely Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai. These road projects are delivered through the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI).

National Highways: National highways are a system of major highways that are laid and maintained by the Central Public Works Department (CPWD). The historic Sher-Shah Suri Marg is known as the National Road No.1, between Delhi and Amritsar.

State Highways: The roads connecting a state capital with several district headquarters are known as State Highways. These roads have been built and maintained by the State Public Works Department (PWD).

District Roads: These roads connect the district head office to other locations in the district. These roads are managed by Zila Parishad.

Other Roads: Rural roads, which connect rural areas and towns to cities, are included in this category. Those roads received a particular impulse under the Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana.

Border Roads: Border Roads Organization builds and maintains roads in neighboring parts of the country. This organization was created in 1960 to develop strategically important highways in the northern and northeastern border regions.

Highways can also be categorized according to the type of materials used in their construction, such as:

  • Metalled roads: Metallized roadways can be made from cement, concrete or even coal bitumen. They are all-season highways.

  • Unmetalled roads: Unmetalled roadways become unusable during the rainy season.

Railways :

Railways are the primary means of transport for transporting large loads and bulky goods over long and short distances in India. Railways have increased in importance in the Indian economy. However, railway transportation also suffers from a number of problems, which are mentioned below:

  • Railroad lines on sandy plains are difficult to establish.

  • In the hilly terrain of the peninsular region, railway tracks are laid across low hills, interstices and tunnels.

  • The mountainous regions of the Himalayas are also unfavourable to the building of railway lines due to the higher elevation points of the surface, the low population and the lack of economic opportunities.

  • Bridge construction is necessary across wide river beds to establish rail lines.

Pipelines : 

The pipeline system uses pipes, usually underground, for the transportation and distribution of fluids. They are used for the transportation of water, crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas, fertilizer plants and major thermal power plants. Solids can also be carried in a pipeline when they are processed into manure.

We have three major pipeline systems across this country.

  • From Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur in Uttar Pradesh

  • From Salaya in Gujarat to Jalandhar in Punjab

  • From oil field in upper Assam to Kanpur (Uttar Pradesh)


Waterways : 

Waterways are the least expensive method of transportation. They are more suitable for transporting large and heavy goods. It is a mode of transportation that is energy efficient and environmentally friendly.

The National Waterways in India are:

  • The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km)-N.W. No.1

  • The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891 km)-N.W. No.2

  • The West-Coast Canal in Kerala (Kottapurma-Kollam, Udyogamandal and Champakkara canals-205 km) – N.W. No.3

  • Specified stretches of Godavari and Krishna rivers along with Kakinada Puducherry stretch of canals (1078 km) – N.W. No.4

  • Specified stretches of river Brahmani along with Matai river, delta channels of Mahanadi and Brahmani rivers and East Coast Canal (588 km) – N.W. No.5

The internal waterways in India are Mandavi, Zuari and Cumberjua, Sunderbans, Barak and Kerala backwaters through which transport takes place.

Major Sea Ports : 

Trade between India and foreign countries takes place through ports. There are 2 major and 200 notified non-majors (minor/intermediate) ports in India. 

The following is a list of the most important ports in India:

  • Mumbai is the largest harbor with a natural and well protected harbor.

  • The port of Marmagao (Goa) is India's most important iron ore exporting port.

  • Kandla in Kachchh was the first harbour to be developed following independence. It is also referred to as the port of Deendayal.

  • Kochchi is the south-west extremity of the harbour, located at the entrance to a lagoon.

  • The port of Mangalore, located in Karnataka, takes care of the export of iron ore.

  • Chennai is one of the oldest manmade harbours in India.

  • The port of Tuticorin lies at the extreme southeast.

  • Kolkata is an interior river harbour.

  • Visakhapatnam is the deepest port, enclosed and well protected.

  • Paradwip port situated in Odisha, specializes in exporting iron ore.

  • Haldia port was developed as a subsidiary port, in order to alleviate the increasing pressure on the port of Kolkata.

Airways : 

Air travel is the quickest, most comfortable and most prestigious mode of transportation. Air transportation has facilitated access to land areas such as high mountains, bleak deserts, dense forests and long oceans. The air transport was nationalised in 1953. Air India is a provider of domestic and international air services.Pawanhans Helicopters Ltd. provides helicopter services to Oil and Natural Gas Corporation for its offshore activities in inaccessible areas and difficult terrain. But air travel is not something that ordinary people can do.


Since the appearance of humans on Earth, they use different methods of communication. But, the rhythm of change, was rapid in the modern era. Long-range communication is much easier without the physical motion of the communicator or receiver.Individual and mass communication, including television, radio, press, cinema, etc. are the primary means of communication within the country. India has the largest postal service in the world. It is responsible for parcels and personal written communications. Cards and envelopes are considered to be first-class mail and are carried by air between land and air stations. Second-class mail consists of book packages, recorded journals and periodicals. They are transported by land and marine transportation.

International Trade : 

Trade in goods between persons, states and countries is called trade. Trade between one country and another is called international trade. It is regarded as the national economic barometer. Exports and imports are the building blocks of trade. A country's trade balance is the difference between their exports and imports.

  • If the value of imports is greater than the value of exports, then we are talking about an unfavourable trade balance.

  • When the value of exports exceeds the value of imports, we speak of a favorable trade balance.

Products exported from India to other countries include precious stones and jewelry, chemicals and related products, agriculture and related products, and so on.

Products imported into India include crude oil and products, gemstones and jewellery, chemicals and related products, base metals, electronic goods, machinery, agriculture and related products.


Tourism as a Trade : 

Over 15 million people contribute directly to the tourism industry. Tourism in India:

  • Assistance for developing international understanding of Indian culture and heritage. International tourists travel to India for heritage tourism, ecotourism, adventure tourism, cultural tourism, medical tourism and business tourism.

  • Encourages national integration.

  • Support local craftwork and cultural activities.


Lifelines of National Economy

The Lifelines of National Economy Class 10 chapter deals with how the modern means of communication and transport serve as lifelines of our nation and students will get a brief understanding of the dense and efficient network of the transport system as a prerequisite for local, national, and global trade.



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The movement of services and goods occurs through three important domains on the Earth-Water, Land, and Air. Thus, based on these domains, the transport system can be classified into- the land medium, water medium, and the air medium of transport.



India has the largest road networks in the whole world that sum to about 54.7 lakh kilometre. The road is an essential economic means that also provides door-to-door service.

Road transport is an essential means that links between the air, seaports, and railway station mediums.

National Highways

The CPWD maintains the National Highways- Central Public Works Department and are a network of trunk roads. The historical Sher-Shah Suri Marg is present between Amristar and Delhi and is now named as the National Highway No.1.

State Highways

State Highways are roads that link the state capital with other multiple district headquarters that are constructed and marinated frequently by the PWD- State Public Works Department.

District Roads

District roads connect the district headquarters with other parts within the districts and are frequently maintained by the Zila Parishad.

Border Roads

Border Roads Organisation was established in the year 1960 and since, maintains and constructs different roads in the borderline areas of the country. The main goal of the Border Roads is the development of roads that are of strategic importance in the north-eastern and northern and border areas.



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The dominant mode of transportation in India for carrying bulky goods and huge loads for short and long distances is the Railway system. Railways have become the essential transport chain in India's economy. Railway lines are difficult to lay on sandy plains.



Pipelines are networks that make use of pipes, usually underground pipes to distribute and transport fluids such as water, fertiliser factories, crude oil, thermal power plants, petroleum products, and natural gas. However, pipelines can even be used to transport solids when converted into a slurry.



Waterways are the most affordable means of transport and are best suited for carrying bulky and heavy goods. Waterways are an environmentally-friendly and fuel-efficient mode of transport. The five major important National Waterways in India are- N.W. No.1 between Allahabad and Haldia, N.W. No.2 between Sadiya and Dhubri, N.W. No.3 in Kerala, N.W. No.4 along with Kakinada Puducherry, and N.W. No.5 along the East Coast Canal.


Major Sea Ports

Seaports are the hub spot where the majority of India's trade with foreign countries is carried out. India comprises about 200 notified non-majors, also known as immediate or minor ports and two major ports. A few crucial ports in India are- Kochchi, Haldia, Kandla, Marmagao, and Paradwip port.



Airways are the most comfortable, prestigious, and fastest mode of transport in India. Air transport was nationalised throughout India in the year 1953 to provide domestic and international air services. Air travel has made people gain access more manageable to the terrain areas such as dreary deserts, long oceans, high mountains, and dense forests.

The Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd. provides air travel services to the Natural Gas and Oil Corporation. This means of transport helps the off-shore operations and provides service to rugged terrains and inaccessible areas. However, air service is not within reach of the common people.

Download Class 10 Contemporary India Chapter 7 - Lifeline of National Economy Resource Notes 

Students can download Class 10 Contemporary India II Revision Notes for all chapters free pdf through the links below.

Related Links

CBSE Class 10 Geography Revision Notes

FAQs on Lifelines of National Economy Class 10 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 7 (Free PDF Download)

1. What are International Trade and its Importance in the Lifelines of National Economy Notes ?

International Trade is defined as the exchange of goods and services that occurs among states, countries, and people. International trade is often considered as the economic barometer for a country and includes import and export as the ultimatum components of the trade. The balance of international trade in a country states the difference between its imports and exports. There are two types of balance of trade- Favourable and Unfavourable balance of trade. Favourable balance of trade happens when the value of exports exceeds the value of imports, and Unfavourable balance of trade happens when the value of imports exceeds the value of exports. The commodities exported from India include jewellery, gems, chemicals, and other related objects. The commodities imported from India include petroleum crude and products, agricultural products, metals, and more.

2. What Role Does Communication Play in the Lifelines of National Economy?

India is one of the largest telecom networks in Asia and the standard Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) facilities set up all over Indian have made the integration of the development in space technology with communication technology possible. Three essential features of communication play an essential role as a Lifeline Of Indian Economy.

Mass Communication creates awareness and provides environment among people about multiple national policies and programmes such as newspapers, radio, books, television, and films. India publishes a considerable number of newspapers across the country in about 100 dialects and languages.

Akashwani or the Indian Radio Channel broadcasts multiple programmes in the local, regional, and national languages.

Doordarshan is the world's largest terrestrial network that functions as India's largest national television channel.

3. What is Chapter 7 all about? 

When you say lifeline, you can very well get an idea that it means something that is holding the entire system together in some way or the other. And here in this chapter called the Lifelines of the National Economy, you will get to know what exactly are called the lifelines for the nation’s economy. Vedantu describes this chapter and if you read it well you will know that the very efficient transport system of our country is being referred to as the economic lifeline.

4. What is Chapter 7 of Class 10 Social science Geography all about?

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Chapter 7 talks about the lifelines of the National Economy. Here it means the transport system that runs across the Nation. Transport system includes roadways, railways, airways, sea ways and everything else that helps in the movement of people and goods from one place to another. The economy would not have flourished in the country if there was no mode of communication and hence they are called the lifelines.

5. What is the significance of the lifelines of the national economy?

Transport system plays a significant role in structuring the economic setup of a country. If there is production of goods or there is ample workforce but no method for transporting it to the place of need or demand then it stands useless. And a stagnant economy will never be able to run a country efficiently. Ultimately the entire functioning of the country will collapse which is why the transport system plays such a significant role in this matter.

6. What do you mean by the lifelines of the economy?

Lifelines of economy means the various modes of transport that are available in the country for the commuting the materials and workforce from one place to other. As given in the website of Vedantu, we get to see that roadways like both national and international highways and other roads, railways, waterways including various sea ports, pipelines, airways etc. are all responsible for the proper working of a country. If you study the notes properly you will definitely develop clear concepts regarding this topic.

7. What are the types of roadways available in India?

Roadways are a major means of transport which allows the movement of vehicles carrying raw materials, finished goods or even machines to and from the industries or human beings like the workforce and manpower that needs to communicate to and from the industrial unit. The types of roadways available in India are the Highways, that is the NH or National Highways, the State Highways, the District roads, the State Roads, the Border roadways and the village roads.