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Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes CBSE History Chapter 2 (Free PDF Download)

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CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 2 Notes - Nationalism in India - Download Now

The concept of nationalism was developed amongst the people of India during the Indian independence movement against the colonial British Rule. The chapter deals with the events that took place in the country from the 1920s to free India from the shackles of foreign rule. With these class 10 nationalism in India notes you will better understand the chapter and will be able to prepare better for your examination. This is a comprehensive summary of nationalism in India class 10 and is perfect for you to glance through while you are revising.

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Access Class 10 Social Science (History) Chapter 2 – Nationalism in India Notes

Mahatma Gandhi’s Role in Nationalism

  • Mahatma Gandhi returned to India from South Africa in 1915.

  • His method was known as Satyagraha, which means Agitation for Truth.

  • He organized the Champaran Satyagraha to support the oppressed plantation workers in 1917.

  • He went to Kheda to show support to the peasants in 1918 with Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel.


The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

  • The British government passed the Rowlatt Act in 1919 which gave them the power to repress any political activities and authorized the detention of any political prisoners without trials for up to 2 years.

  • On 13th April 1919, the villagers attended the Baisakhi fair at the Jallianwala Bagh when there was countrywide martial law.

  • General Dyer blocked the only entry/exit of the park and opened fire at the civilians.

  • He ordered open fire which killed thousands of men, women, and children.

  • This brutal act enraged other Indians. There were nationwide partials, attacks on government buildings, and clashes.


Khilafat Movement

  • The Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay and Mahatma Gandhi supported it.

  • It was started by Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali.


The Salt March

  • Mahatma Gandhi demanded from Lord Irwin, the Viceroy of India which included the abolishment of the Salt tax.

  • He began the Salt March with 78 volunteers from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi to manufacture salt.


The Poona Pact

  • The Dalits refused to participate in the movement without separate electorates and reservation of seats.

  • Dr. Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar formed the Depressed Classes Association and signed the Poona Pact with the Congress in 1932


Important Questions and Answers

1. Explain the three main events that took place under Gandhi's Satyagraha Movement.

Ans: The three main events that took place under Gandhi's Satyagraha movement were as follows:

  • Champaran Satyagraha in 1917

  • Kheda Satyagraha in 1918

  • Mill Workers Support in 1918


2. When did Gandhiji return from South Africa?

Ans: Gandhiji returned from South Africa in 1915.


3. What was observed on April 6th, 1919?

Ans: 6th April 1919 was observed as the Satyagraha Day where people went on fast and strike across the nation.


4. Write down the effect of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre.

Ans: The effects of the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre were as follows:

  • Government buildings were attacked by the people

  • There were clashes with police officers and numerous strikes

  • The British suppressed the agitations with brutality and humiliation

  • The villages were bombed and destroyed


5. In which session of the INC was the demand of 'Purna Swaraj' formalized?

Ans: 'Purna Swaraj' was formalized in the 1929 session of the Indian National Congress at Lahore. 


6. What did the Rowlatt Act impose?

Ans: According to the Rowlatt Act, the British Government had the power to prohibit the political activities and detain the political leaders without trial for up to two years.


7. Who started the Khilafat Movement and why?

Ans: It was started by Muhammad Ali and Shakaut Ali. It was started in response to the unjust treatment given to the Caliph of the Ottoman Empire who was regarded by the Muslims around the world as their Spiritual Leader.


8. Which act prohibited the plantation workers from leaving the tea garden without prior permission?

Ans: The Inland Immigration Act passed in 1859. The plantation workers couldn't leave the tea gardens without prior permission from their superiors which they seldom got upon asking.


9. Who wrote the book 'Hind Swaraj'?

Ans: Mahatma Gandhi wrote the book Hind Swaraj.


10. What is the meaning of 'Beggar'?

Ans: Beggar means forced labor without income.


Nationalism in India Class 10 Summary

The class 10 history chapter 2 notes PDF is created in a manner that will help you prepare well for your examination. You can create a nationalism in India class 10 PPT or nationalism in India project using the summary. You can also use the information for creating slides of nationalism in India PPT.


First World War, The Non-Cooperation and The Khilafat Movement

The want of freedom from colonial rule connected people across the country who were forged under the Indian National Congress by Mahatma Gandhi. From 1919 the movement spread to various sections of the society. The first World War had created a scenario which led to a huge increase in defense expenditure which created hardships for common people. To worsen the conditions there was crop failure and an epidemic of influenza which led to people perishing. The common man thought that their hardships would end after the war but nothing improved.


The Idea of Satyagraha

The idea of Satyagraha was conceived by Mahatma Gandhi when he returned from South Africa in 1915 where he had actively fought against racism. Satyagraha emphasized the power and need for truth. According to him the concept of Satyagraha would be the string that would unite the country. Gandhiji led Satyagraha in Champaran, Kheda and Ahmedabad to help the peasants.


The Rowlatt Act

The Imperial Legislative Council, despite the collective opposition of the Indian members, passed the Rowlatt Act. It allowed the British government to curb down political movements in the country and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. Gandhiji wanted a nationwide Satyagraha against these unjust laws. A non-violent Civil Disobedience movement was launched against the law on 6th April. Nationwide protests took place. The British government wanted to curb the upsurge so they arrested leaders from Amritsar and Gandhiji was detained to enter Delhi.


On 13th April, the infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place. A large but peaceful crowd had gathered in the grounds of Jallianwala Bagh. Dyer entered the area and blocked the exit points and opened fire at the crowd killing hundreds of people.


The news of Jallianwala Bagh spread across the country like fire. People were infuriated and strikes, clashes, and attacks on government buildings took place. There was utter confusion and violence in the country which led to Gandhiji calling off the movement.


Gandhiji then took up the Khilafat issue which brought unity amongst the Hindus and the Muslims together. The Khilafat Committee was set-up in Bombay in 1919. Gandhi urged the leaders of the National Congress to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat and Swaraj.


Why Non-Cooperation?

As per Gandhiji British rule was established in India because of cooperation of the Indians. If Indians did not cooperate then British rule would collapse in a year. The movement was proposed in stages starting from the renunciation of titles. There was a boycott of civil services, army, foreign goods, police, courts and legislative council. In December 1920, the Non-Cooperation Movement was adopted.


Differing Strands Within The Movement

In 1921, January the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement was launched. People from all sections of the society participated in the movement.


Foreign goods were boycotted. This led to the rise in the production of Indian textiles and handlooms. Teachers, students, headmasters, lawyers gave up on their services at government institutions.


In the countryside, the movement demanded a boycott of oppressive landlords. In June 1920 Jawaharlal Nehru visited the villages of Awadh to understand the problems of the peasants there. In October he set up the Oudh Kisan Sabha. In 1921 the peasant movement spread.


Towards Civil Disobedience

The Non-Cooperation movement was withdrawn in 1922 because of it taking a violent turn. In 1928 the statutory Simon Commission arrived in India only to be greeted by the slogan- ‘Go back Simon’. In December 1929, the Lahore Congress headed by Jawaharlal Nehru formalized the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or complete independence.


Salt March and Civil Disobedience Movement

In demand to abolish the salt taxes primarily, Gandhiji put eleven demands in-front of Viceroy Irwin. In case the demands were not fulfilled the Congress would start the Civil-Disobedience Act. The famous salt march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi took place. Gandhiji violated the salt laws by manufacturing salt from boiling water. The Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed after enormous confusion in the country. The Civil-Disobedience had lost its momentum by 1934.


Limits of the Civil Disobedience Act

The Dalits wanted a separate electorate and demanded a reserved seat in educational institutes. After the suspension of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, the Muslims felt alienated from the congress and there was tension between the Hindus and the Muslims. 


You will get all these points and much more in detail if you get your copy of Class 10 History Chapter 3 Notes in Hindi as well.


Vande Mataram

People across the country came on the streets to fight against British rule. History nationalism in India was further fostered by patriotic and historical fictions, folklores, songs, etc. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay composed ‘Vande Mataram’. Abanindranath Tagore painted ‘Bharat Mata.’ India emerged as a nation which wanted freedom from colonial rule. This collected sense of common belongingness finally led our beloved country to freedom.


A note on nationalism in India class 10 in English will be incomplete without the mention of the contribution of language and culture in the entire freedom movement.


Did You Know?

The nationalist movement in Indo China Class 10 curriculum is yet another remarkable phase of Asian history. Indo-China comprising the modern countries of Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia was under the control of the powerful Chinese empire. Vietnam was colonized by the French. From the eighteenth century onward, resistance started to grow in many forms, from various levels. The sense of nationalism was ignited by a number of factors. Communism also played an important role in it.

  • While making a ‘nationalism in Indo China’ PPT for your school project, you must include a slide dedicated to this phase of history.


Other Chapters Revision Notes


CBSE Related Links


Chapter 2 of CBSE Class 10 mainly focuses on the concepts of Indian Nationalism. In this chapter, students will learn about Indian Nationalism developed at the time of the Indian independence movement fought against the colonial British Rule. They will also learn about the story from the 1920s, the Civil Disobedience Movement, the non-Cooperation  Movements, how different social groups participated in the national movement, how Congress sought to develop the national movement, and how nationalism captured the imagination of people.

FAQs on Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes CBSE History Chapter 2 (Free PDF Download)

1. What is the Importance of Nationalism?

The concept of nationalism was extremely important in the context of India’s freedom movement because it played crucial in freeing the country from the shackles of foreign power and years of oppression. The British had developed a tone of racial superiority over the years. They drained India of its wealth and treated Indians like slaves. This regime had to end. And only a nation unified with love and respect for its motherland could uproot the British Raj from the country. This sense of being one with the nation was termed as nationalism. It holds in any context, at any point in time.

2. What is Nationalism in India in Hindi?

Nationalism in Hindi is known as ‘rashtra bodh’. The notes on Nationalism in India Class 10 in Hindi will help you to understand the concept of nationalism and also enlighten you about the various incidents that took place in the country from 1920 in order to free the country from colonial rule.

3. What were the reasons for the rise of nationalism in India according to Chapter 2 of Class 10 History?

There were many reasons, mainly political and economic, that led to the rise of nationalism in India. These include:

  • Need for independence from the British colonialism

  • Increased defense expenditure post the First World War

  • Imposition of various taxes and introduction of income tax

  • Discontentment among the rural population due to forced recruitment of soldiers

  • Disappointment and anger against the colonial government after acute food shortage faced because of the crop failure during 1918-19 and 1920-21.

4. What was the Rowlatt Act discussed in Chapter 2 of Class 10 History?

As discussed in Class 10 History Chapter 2 notes, Rowlatt Act was a law imposed in the year 1919 by the British government, giving them the power to suppress any political activities that took place in the country. It also allowed the government to detain the persons involved for two years without any charges or trial. The act offended and harmed national sentiments due to its harsh and undemocratic nature.

5. What is meant by Nationalism according to Chapter 2 of Class 10 History?

Nationalism refers to an ideology that promotes loyalty or more similar sentiments towards one’s nation and its interests by knowing and acting on the political, social, and economic conditions. Nationalism is meant to bring the people together in favour of the betterment of the nation. Nationalism in India is what refers to the movement that took place when people came together to work against the colonial government’s suppressing rule over the country.

6. Why should I refer to Vedantu CBSE notes for Class 10 History?

Every student aims to score well in their Class 10 Board exams and to achieve that, it is important to ensure that they do not fall behind in their practice. The aim of the CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 2 Notes is to help students achieve their goal of scoring the maximum marks in their Class 10 Social Science exam. These notes are available free of cost. These notes will help you understand the topics covered in the chapter in a better way while saving time for more practice and revision.

7. What are the important topics covered in the Class 10 History Chapter 2 notes?

Following is a list of topics that are important for your Class 10 Social Science exam and have been covered in the CBSE Notes for Class 10 History Chapter 2:

  • Rowlatt Act

  • Non-cooperation Movement

  • Civil Disobedience Movement

  • Quit India

  • Role of Mahatma Gandhi

  • Policies of Satyagraha, Swaraj, non-violence

  • Congress Session of 1929

  • Swadeshi and Boycott Movement

  • Morley-Minto Reforms

  • Communalism in India

  • Indian literature and rise of nationalism

  • Tribal movements in India

  • Causes of Indian partition.

The notes for all the topics are available on the Vedantu app and website.