Nationalism in India Class 10 Notes History Chapter 2 - PDF Download
The concept of nationalism was developed amongst the people of India during the Indian independence movement against the colonial British Rule. The chapter deals with the events that took place in the country from the 1920s to free India from the shackles of foreign rule. With these class 10 nationalism in India notes you will better understand the chapter and will be able to prepare better for your examination. This is a comprehensive summary of nationalism in India class 10 and is perfect for you to glance through while you are revising.
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Nationalism in India Class 10 Summary
The class 10 history chapter 2 notes PDF is created in a manner that will help you prepare well for your examination. You can create a nationalism in India class 10 PPT or nationalism in India project using the summary. You can also use the information for creating slides of nationalism in India PPT.
First World War, The Non-Cooperation and The Khilafat Movement
The want of freedom from colonial rule connected people across the country who were forged under the Indian National Congress by Mahatma Gandhi. From 1919 the movement spread to various sections of the society. The first World War had created a scenario which led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which created hardships for common people. To worsen the conditions there was crop failure and an epidemic of influenza which led to people perishing. The common man thought that their hardships would end after the war but nothing improved.
The Idea of Satyagraha
The idea of Satyagraha was conceived by Mahatma Gandhi when he returned from South Africa in 1915 where he had actively fought against racism. Satyagraha emphasized the power and need for truth. According to him the concept of Satyagraha would be the string that would unite the country. Gandhiji led Satyagraha in Champaran, Kheda and Ahmedabad to help the peasants.
The Rowlatt Act
The Imperial Legislative Council despite the collective opposition of the Indian members passed the Rowlatt Act. It allowed the British government to curb down political movements in the country and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. Gandhiji wanted a nationwide Satyagraha against these unjust laws. A non-violent Civil Disobedience movement was launched against the law on 6th April. Nationwide protests took place. The British government wanted to curb down the upsurge so they arrested leaders from Amritsar and Gandhiji was detained to enter Delhi.
On 13th April, the infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre took place. A large but peaceful crowd had gathered in the grounds of Jallianwala Bagh. Dyer entered the area and blocked the exit points and opened fire at the crowd killing hundreds of people.
The news of Jallianwala Bagh spread across the country like fire. People were infuriated and strikes, clashes, attacks on government buildings took place. There were utter confusion and violence in the country which led to Gandhiji calling off the movement.
Gandhiji then took up the Khilafat issue which bought unity amongst the Hindus and the Muslims together. The Khilafat Committee was set-up in Bombay in 1919. Gandhi urged the leaders of the National Congress to start a non-cooperation movement in support of Khilafat and Swaraj.
As per Gandhiji British rule was established in India because of cooperation of the Indians. If Indians did not cooperate then the British rule would collapse in a year. The movement was proposed in stages starting from the renunciation of titles. There was a boycott of civil services, army, foreign goods, police, courts and legislative council. In December 1920, the Non-Cooperation Movement was adopted.
Differing Strands Within The Movement
In 1921, January the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement was launched. People from all sections of the society participated in the movement.
Foreign goods were boycotted. This led to the rise in the production of Indian textiles and handlooms. Teachers, students, headmasters, lawyers gave up on their services at government institutions.
In the countryside, the movement demanded a boycott of oppressive landlords. In June 1920 Jawaharlal Nehru visited the villages of Awadh to understand the problems of the peasants there. In October he set up the Oudh Kisan Sabha. In 1921 the peasant movement spread.
Towards Civil Disobedience
The Non-Cooperation movement was withdrawn in 1922 because of it taking a violent turn. In 1928 the statutory Simon Commission arrived in India only to be greeted by the slogan- ‘Go back Simon’. In December 1929, the Lahore Congress headed by Jawaharlal Nehru formalized the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or complete independence.
Salt March and Civil Disobedience Movement
In demand to abolish the salt taxes primarily, Gandhiji put eleven demands in-front of Viceroy Irwin. In case the demands were not fulfilled the Congress would start the Civil-Disobedience Act. The famous salt march from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi took place. Gandhiji violated the salt laws manufacturing salt from boiling water. The Gandhi-Irwin pact was signed after enormous confusion in the country. The Civil-Disobedience had lost its momentum by 1934.
Limits of the Civil Disobedience Act
The Dalits wanted a separate electorate and demanded a reserved seat in educational institutes. After the suspension of the Non-Cooperation-Khilafat Movement, the Muslims felt alienated from the congress and there was tension between the Hindus and the Muslims.
You will get all these points and much more in detail if you get your copy of Class 10 History Chapter 3 Notes in Hindi as well.
People across the country came on the streets to fight against British rule. History nationalism in India was further fostered by patriotic and historical fictions, folklores, songs, etc. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay composed ‘Vande Mataram’. Abanindranath Tagore painted ‘Bharat Mata.’ India emerged as a nation which wanted freedom from colonial rule. This collected sense of common belongingness finally led our beloved country to freedom.
A note on nationalism in India class 10 in English will be incomplete without the mention of the contribution of language and culture in the entire freedom movement.
Did You Know?
The nationalist movement in Indo China Class 10 curriculum is yet another remarkable phase of Asian history. Indo-China comprising the modern countries of Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia was under the control of the powerful Chinese empire. Vietnam was colonised by the French. From the eighteenth century onward, resistance started to grow in many forms, from various levels. The sense of nationalism was ignited by a number of factors. Communism also played an important role in it.
While making a ‘nationalism in Indo China’ PPT for your school project, you must include a slide dedicated to this phase of history.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. What is the Importance of Nationalism?
Ans. The concept of nationalism was extremely important in the context of India’s freedom movement because it played crucial in freeing the country from the shackles of foreign power and years of oppression. The British had developed a tone of racial superiority over the years. They drained India of its wealth and treated Indians like slaves. This regime had to end. And only a nation unified with love and respect for its motherland could uproot the British Raj from the country. This sense of being one with the nation was termed as nationalism. It holds in any context, at any point in time.
2. What is Nationalism in India in Hindi?
Ans. Nationalism in Hindi is known as ‘rashtra bodh’. The notes on Nationalism in India Class 10 in Hindi will help you to understand the concept of nationalism and also enlighten you about the various incidents that took place in the country from 1920 in order to free the country from colonial rule.