CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 1 Notes - The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Notes History Chapter 1 - PDF Download

Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 in History deals with one of the most important social changes in Europe. The Rise of Nationalism in Europe was not a single event but a series of events that resulted in Nationalism in Europe. Nationalism in Europe started in the 18th century and reached its peak in the 19th century when it spread to most of the European countries. The Class 10 History Chapter 1 notes are prepared for your benefit and will help you in getting a deeper understanding of the events and political environment of Nationalism in Europe. Let's get an idea of CBSE Class 10 History Notes Chapter 1 by reading further.

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Frederic Sorrieu

  • He is a French artist, who presented a series of paintings in 1848.

  • He visualized his dreams, that is, a world of social and democratic republics.

  • In Sorrieu’s utopian vision, the people of the world are grouped as distinct nations. They are identified through their flags and national costume.

  • Leading the procession are USA and Switzerland,which is  followed by France and Germany. Following Germany are Austria, Kingdom of the two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary and Russia.


French Revolution

  • French revolution in 1789, was the start of nationalism.

  • French revolutionaries took many steps to create a feeling of collective identity:

  1. Innovative ideas such as Le citoyen and La Partie

  2. Creation of a new French flag.

  3. Election of National Assembly, also renaming from estate general to National Assembly.

  4. The administrative system which is consolidated.

  5. Abolishing of customs and internal duties.

  6. Uniform weights and measures were introduced.

  7. French was getting a common language.


Napoleonic Code

  • Napoleon destroyed France democracy.

  • Introduction of Civil code 1804, which was called Napoleonic code.

  • Features of this code are:

  1. Abolishing of all birth rights and privileges.

  2. Establishment of equality before the law.

  3. Security of right to property.

  4. Guild restrictions were removed.


New Middle Class

  • Politically as well as socially, aristocrats were dominant as far as population is concerned.

  • Peasants were the majority in the population.

  • Since industrialization in England, a new social class known as working class was emerged.

  • It included artisans, industrialists, businessmen and so on.


Liberalism

  • Property owning men were only given the right to vote or getting elected.

  • Each and every women and property-less men were restricted from all political rights.

  • It is derived from Latin word ‘root liber’, it means to be free.

  • For the end of clerical privilege, autocracy the liberal nationalism was stood alive. 


A New Conservatism After 1815

  • Major European powers in 1815: Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria had defeated Napoleon.

  • They use to meet in Vienna to draw up a European settlement called as treaty of Vienna.

  • As per this treaty:

  1. Power was restored by the Bourbon dynasty.

  2. During the Napoleonic wars, France lost all its territories.

  3. 39 states of the German Confederation were formed by Napoleon, left untouched.

  4. On the French boundary, borders were made to prevent France from expanding.


The Revolutionaries

Guiseppe Mazzini

  • Born in Genoa in 1807.

  • Was a member of secret society of carbonate.

  • He established 2 secret societies: Young Europe in Berne and Young Italy in Marseilles.

  • The main aim was to unify Italy in a republic.


The Age of Revolution: 1830-1848

  • Bourbon kings have overthrown to set up a constitutional monarchy in July 1830.

  • Greece was struggling for independence which was a part of the Ottoman Empire.

  • Greece was declared as an independent nation in Treaty of Constantinople signed in 1832.

  • National feeling was the main focused area.

  • German philosopher, Johan Gottfried discovered the culture in common people through music, dance and folk poetry.

  • There were fewer jobs and more people.

  • Due to the rise in food costs and bad harvesting, widespread pauperism in the country.

  • Silesia weavers in 1845, revolt against contractors.

  • Frankfurt parliament was elected in 1848. 831 elected representatives were conveyed in St. Paul Church.


Making of German

  • Otto Von Bismarck took a leadership role with the support of Prussian army and bureaucracy. 

  • Kaiser William 1 was the new head of the German empire.


Making of Italy

  • Giuseppe Mazzini headed the unification program which got failed.

  • Victor Emmanuel II became the new king of unified Italy in 1861.


Britain

  • English Parliament seized power from the ruling monarchy.

  • British force took Ireland, in 1801 after the revolution failed.

  • British Nation was formed and it was facilitated through the mass propagation of English culture.


Nationalism and Imperialism

  • Modern Balkans included Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Albania, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Slovenia.

  • This area was made explosive by Romantic nationalism, hence, major European wanted to have control over this area.

  • So, this led to a series of war called as First World War.


Important Questions and Answers

1. What was the aim of the French Revolution?

Ans: Following was the aim of French Revolution:

  • It was the starting of nationalism in France and the main objective was to build a collective identity in French people.

  • Ideas like Le Citoyen and La Patrie promoted the belief of united community that enjoy equal rights in the constitution.


2. Who was the ‘Hero of two Worlds’ and what was his role in the unification of Italy?

Ans: Giuseppe Garibaldi was the ‘Hero of two Worlds’. He was born in 1807 and played important role in the unification of Italy. Two secret societies were formed: Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne. According to his belief, Italy wouldn’t have survived as smaller states and it needed to be unified.


3. Write about the two female allegories in the 19th century.

Ans: The two female allegories in the 19th century are:

  1. Marianne – She was named Marianne in France which was a Christian name, useful to promote the idea of people’s nation. An important feature was inspired by liberty and republic. Soon statues of Marianne became symbol of unity.

  2. Germania – She was an allegory of Germany. She wore a beautiful crown made up of oak leaves. It was distinctively hung from St. Paul Church ceiling to represent the liberal revolution.


4. Name some of the characteristic features of conservative regimes.

Ans: Characteristic feature of conservative regimes are:

  • Intolerant to criticism and dissent.

  • Autocratic

  • Censored press

  • Suppressed questions that challenged their legitimacy.


5. Explain the importance of National feeling and Imagination.

Ans: The culture was important for the development of national feelings. It was through arts, poetry, music, stories which created nationalist feelings. Glorification of science was criticized openly and it was replaced by intuitions, sentiments and emotions. This was known as romanticism aimed to create national sentiments. Language also played important role in developing national feelings.


The Rise of Nationalism in Europe - Free PDF

The Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 in History is available for free in PDF. For class notes in detail and further chapter solutions, we have a dedicated section for the students of boards. The chapter Frédéric Sorrieu’s visualisation of his dream and it ends with the spread of imperialism. Refer to Class 10 History Chapter 1 notes to get an in-depth understanding of the chapter.


The Rise of Nationalism in Europe

The notes of Chapter 1 History Class 10 starts with the dream Sorrieu had of a world made up of democratic and social republics. His idea of nationalism excludes class-based divisions and he divides the people marching in the scene by their nations. Men and women marching together with flags of their nation can be seen depicting a nationalist feeling.


The French Revolution and the Idea of the Nation

  • The French revolution during 1789 gave a clear image of nationalism in the minds of people all over. The idea of nationalism grew further with ideas like la Patrie and le Citoyen.

  • Nationalism as an idea and spirit spread to many parts of Europe and Jacobin clubs started popping up everywhere in Europe.

  • The French army invaded many other countries like Holland, Belgium and Switzerland by the 1790s. Napoleon destroyed democracy in France and established monarchy.

  • Napoleon did away with birth based privileges and implemented a codified system known as the Napoleonic Code in 1804.


The Making of Nationalism in Europe

Europe was divided into various dutchies and empires instead of countries like present day. The idea of nation-states was non-existent then.


The Aristocracy and the New Middle Class

  • The late eighteenth century and early nineteenth century was dominated by the aristocracy. They were not only connected to each other by business but also marriage on many occasions.

  • The Industrial Revolution paved the way for industries to set up in cities and a new class emerged. They started dominating the city spaces and came to be known as the middle class.


What did Liberal Nationalism Stand for?

  • Socially, liberalism stood for the idea of freedom for the individual and equality before the law.

  • Politically, it was implied for a government by people’s choice.

  • Economically, liberalism meant that merchants could freely trade their wares and move around in various regions for business purposes.

  • As economic liberalism grew, the feeling of nationalism also grew to greater heights.


A New Conservatism After 1815

  • A lot of people felt that traditional institutions and systems needed to be brought back. Even though many understood that they do not need to go to pre-revolutionary days, they felt modernisation might strengthen their traditional institutes.

  • The Treaty of Vienna was responsible for undoing most of the changes done by Napoleon. Monarchies overthrown by Napoleon were tried to be brought back through these measures.

  • Conservatives of 1815 did not tolerate any kind of dissent, criticism and controlled the speech of the public by censorship. Freedom of speech was curbed as much as possible. Although the liberal-nationalist were still working actively despite all this.


The Revolutionaries

  • The Conservatives tried curbing the freedom of speech but they were unable to do so. Liberal nationalists found ways and set up secret societies to spread the message of nationalism.

  • One such liberal-nationalist was Giuseppe Mazzini. He founded Young Italy and Young Europe.

  • Many secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland, and Poland. Mazzini and his activities had now started to terrorize the conservatives.


The Age of Revolutions: 1830-1848

Liberal-nationalist started to be associated with various revolutions in many European regions. The primary belong to the educated middle-class elite. The first set of shocks was felt by the Bourbon Kings who were overthrown by liberal-nationalist. Another revolution due to nationalism was the Greek War of Independence.


The Romantic Imagination and National Feeling

  • Nationalism was not only displayed through rebellion and revolution but also through culture. Poetry, story music and everything else also played an important role in shaping nationalism among people.

  • Under romanticism, established writers and poets criticized the use of science and reason and emphasized the importance of emotions, intuition, and created a sense of shared feeling.

  • Folk songs, folk poetry, and folk dances got popular, as they were being used as a nation-building tool by the common people.

  • The language was also used as a weapon against monarchy for any Anti-National element. In regions where another language was imposed, removing the vernacular one, there were rebellions, and vernacular language was re-established in institutions.


Hunger, Hardship and Popular Revolt

  • Europe was hit with economic peril around the 1830s. There was a population boom all over Europe and food prices rose due to bad harvest.

  • Poverty and unemployment rose to great heights during this time.


The Revolution of the Liberals

  • On one hand, poverty had created a revolution in the society on the other hand liberal-nationalist advantage of the situation and fought for their own issues.

  • A parliament-like structure was demanded of the conservatives in Germany and Friedrich Wilhelm IV was selected to be the Monarch who would lead them. Friedrich refused and joined the conservatives instead.

  • Women and men rebelled together and created a revolution in society. Although giving women political rights was still a controversial issue. Women had empowered themselves by founding newspapers, taking part in political meetings, and demonstrations.

  • By 1848, the conservative understood that they had to give concessions to the liberal nationalists, as they would not stop otherwise. Many changes in the government were seen thereafter.


The Making of Germany and Italy

Germany – Can the Army be the Architect of a Nation?

  • After 1848, the conservatives started to use nationalism as a weapon to further their policies. This is clearly visible in how Germany and Italy united as nation-states.

  • The initiative to unify Prussia was taken by the army. Under the leadership of Otto von Bismarck, Prussia was United using the help from the army and bureaucracy.


Italy Unified

  • Italy was divided into various States just like Germany. It was divided into seven states out of which only one was ruled by a princely house. Sardinia-piedmont was ruled by the princely house.

  • Italian unification was possible due to the Chief Minister Cavour. On the one hand, Mazzini spread nationalism using his Young Italy society. On the other hand, Chief Minister Cavour lED the Italian unification. Sardinia-piedmont defeated the Austrians in 1859.

  • Further, the Italian army march to South Italy and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies and succeeded in driving out the Spanish. Victor Emmanuel II became the king of Italy in 1861.


The Strange Case of Britain

Britain became a nation-state not by a Revolution or rebellion but rather by imposing its influence on its neighbouring countries. With varied identities and ethnicities, the European region was very diverse. The act of union between England and Scotland in the influence of Britain over Scotland. This is how British unification took place.


Visualising the Nation

The nationalism was depicted by various personifications known as allegory. Germania and Marianne were two famous allegorical figures.


Nationalism and Imperialism

While nationalism declined in the 19th century, the Balkan region had growing tensions. The Ottoman Empire made situations worse for the Balkan region. Europe had widespread nationalism but on the other hand, it was lined with imperialism.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. Give an Overview of The Rise of Nationalism in Europe.

Ans: Rise of nationalism in Europe was a gradual process. It was a result of mass protest, rebellion and struggle. The major conflict between the Conservatives and Liberal-nationalist issued before the former gave any concession to the latter. The idea of nationalism was formed due to the sense of belonging. People felt a bond through a common struggle fighting for their rights and freedom. Nationalism was shown through various cultural mediums like poetry, art, folk songs, dance etc.


Various nation-states emerged through various types of processes. While Prussia unified under the leadership of an army and bureaucracy, Britain unified by influencing Scotland and other neighbours. More details are given in notes of Chapter 1 History class 10.

2. Has the Indian Journey of Nationalism been Similar to that of European Nations?

Ans: European and Indian nationalism is quite similar and yet different. On one hand, Europe had to struggle for freedom from various monarchs or nobles. On the other hand, India had to struggle for independence from Britishers. One was struggling against conservatism and the other was struggling against colonialism.


European nationalism also saw a lot of bloodshed and war to achieve independence and unification. Indian Independence struggle was far more non-violent and peaceful in terms of protest. Both of them went through various stages of cultural changes and spread nationalist literature and art to spread nationalism. Mass protest and struggle were observed in both regions. Women participation was also an important part of the independence struggle in both regions.

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