Ans: Rise of nationalism in Europe was a gradual process. It was a result of mass protest, rebellion and struggle. The major conflict between the Conservatives and Liberal-nationalist issued before the former gave any concession to the latter. The idea of nationalism was formed due to the sense of belonging. People felt a bond through a common struggle fighting for their rights and freedom. Nationalism was shown through various cultural mediums like poetry, art, folk songs, dance etc.
Various nation-states emerged through various types of processes. While Prussia unified under the leadership of an army and bureaucracy, Britain unified by influencing Scotland and other neighbours. More details are given in notes of Chapter 1 History class 10.