Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 5 [Free PDF Download]

Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes Geography Chapter 5 - PDF Download

The earth’s crust is made up of several minerals which are embedded in the rocks. Metals are extracted from minerals after refining. In Chapter 5 Geography Class 10 Notes by Vedantu you will learn how human beings are dependant upon using minerals for their livelihood, festivities, decoration, daily use miscellaneous objects, religious and ceremonial rites, etc. Furthermore, you will get an idea about the classification of minerals, conservation methods, energy resources and their conservation. Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes PDF which can be easily downloaded will give you an insight into the various aspects related to minerals and their study.

Topics Covered in the Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources of Class 10

Below given is the list of various topics discussed in the chapter ‘Minerals and Energy Resources’. 

  • What is a mineral?

  • Mode of occurrence of minerals

  • Where are these minerals found?

  • Classification of minerals (Metallic, Non-metallic, Energy minerals)

  • Ferrous minerals (Iron Ore, Manganese)

  • Non-ferrous minerals (Copper, Bauxite)

  • Non-metallic minerals (Mica)

  • Rock minerals (Limestone)

  • Conservation of minerals

  • Energy resources

  • Conventional sources of energy (Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas, Electricity)

  • Non-conventional sources of energy (Nuclear or atomic energy, Solar energy, Wind power, Biogas, Tidal energy, Geo-thermal energy)

Highlights of the Chapter: Minerals and Energy Resources


Cental Board of Secondary Education (CBSE)


Contemporary India-2




Social Science (Geography)



Chapter Name

Minerals and Energy Resources


Revision Notes

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Different things are used in our daily lives, some of which are made up of metals. From a tiny pin to a towering building or ship, everything is made up of metal. 

There are various metals, each of which is manufactured from a particular mineral called ore. Besides, we also depend on energy resources- both renewable as well as non-renewable. 

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Geography Chapter 5 enlightens us about these minerals and energy resources that are the pillars of the growth of our economy. 


A resource is a thing obtained from a source and can be used to satisfy human needs. It has valuable values and hence, is of economic significance. Resources may be classified in many ways. Mineral and energy resources are two of them. Earth's crust is made up of minerals. Minerals are the most valuable, homogeneous natural resources which can be used as fuel and a source for ferrous and non-ferrous metals. 


An ore is a type of rock in which metallic minerals are present in concentrated form. Mineral ores are required to be refined before their use for the extraction of metals.

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Classification of Minerals Metallic 

Minerals Ferrous Minerals Iron Ore

The main ore from which iron is extracted for steel manufacture. It is the backbone of modern civilization as everything - from a tiny pin to a gigantic skyscraper, bridges, railroads, etc. - is made of iron and steel. Of the four classes of iron ore –

  • Magnetite is the most refined quality ore, which is black. 

  • Hematite is also a good quality ore. It is reddish. Areas having rich iron ore deposits in India are shown in the below map:

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Distribution of Iron Ore in India


Mining areas


Gorumahisani, Badampahar in Mayurbhanj


Singhbhum, Noamundi


Dalli-Rajhara, Bailadila in Bastar District


Bicholim, Ratnagiri District


Kudremukh in Chikmagalur, Bellary district


When added to iron, manganese acts as a 'cleanser' in manufacturing steel to remove glasses. It is also used in the manufacture of bleaching powder, pesticides, and paint.

Non-Ferrous Minerals


As copper is a ductile metal and a good conductor, it is ideal for making electric wires. It is also used in the electronics and chemical industries. 

State-wise Distribution of Copper Ore in India:


Mining Area

Madhya Pradesh







Bauxite is a rock consisting of aluminium oxides. Aluminium is an essential metallic mineral as it is light, resistant to corrosion. It combines the strength of the metals such as iron. Odisha is the leading state producing bauxite. Koraput, Sambalpur are some important districts where bauxite is mainly found.

Non-Metallic Minerals


It has thin crystal layers and is brittle. It can be easily broken into sheets. It has a low power loss factor and is resistant to high voltage; it is used in the electric and electronic industries. 

State-wise Distribution of Mica in India:


Mining Area


The northern edge of the Chota Nagpur plateau, Koderma Gaya of Hazaribagh belt are the leading producer of mica in The India.



Andra Pradesh


Energy Resources 

An energy resource produces heat and light, is needed to cook food and run vehicles. Energy resources can be classified into two kinds, they are :

 i. Conventional Energy Resources 

ii. Non-Conventional Energy Resources 

Conventional Energy Resources

Conventional energy resources have been in everyday use on a large commercial scale for generating power. These include the non-renewable fossil resources of coal, petroleum, and natural gas on the one hand and running water on the other. 


Coal is formed from the remains of plants that got buried in deep layers of the earth's surface over a million years.

Types of Coal: 

i. Peat (the first stage) 

ii. Lignite or Brown Coal (the second stage with 30-40% carbon content)

iii. Bituminous Coal (the third stage with 40-80% carbon content is the most popular coal in commercial use) iv. Anthracite (the fourth stage with 90% carbon content, it is also known as 'hard coal') 

Importance and uses of coal

● It is an essential source of power in India. 

● Besides providing heat and raising steam in industrial sectors, it is still an essential domestic fuel. 

Regional Distribution of Coal 

● The primary source of Gondwana coal is in Damodar Valley. 

● Jharia, Bokaro, and Giridih in Jharkhand are some essential coalfields.

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It is formed from the dead plants and animals buried in rocky strata on the ocean floor. It has the broadest range of domestic as well as industrial use and so it is called liquid gold.

Regional Distribution of Petroleum

● About 60-63% of the country's total production is from Bombay High.

● About 18-19% of the output is from Gujarat. Ankleshwar is the essential oil mining field here. 

● About 16% of the output is from Assam. Here, the oldest oil field of India is located in Digboi.

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Natural Gas

It is considered a clean environmental fuel or energy resource as less carbon dioxide is emitted from its combustion. 


By constructing dams on the river, river water is stored and is made to fall from a height over turbine blades which start moving by the force of falling water. Moving blades of a turbine turn the generator that produces electricity. E.g., the BhakraNangal Project, Damodar Valley Corporation, the Hirakud Project, etc., have hydroelectric power. 

Thermal Electricity

Fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas generate thermal power. 

Nuclear Energy

When atoms of one chemical element change into those of another, the energy which is released is known as Nuclear Energy. Many places reserve certain nuclear minerals in India, e.g.- Uranium deposits are found in Rajasthan and Singhbhum in Jharkhand. High-grade thorium is located in the monazite sands on the coast of Kerala.

Non-Conventional Energy Resources 

These are eco-friendly energy resources, reduce our carbon footprint, and not emit greenhouse gases that pollute the environment. Being natural resources, they are renewable and are all ''flow'' resources that are inexhaustible and sustainable. 

Solar Energy 

Heat energy from the sun is captured by using a solar energy collector or concentrator and used in various applications. Solar energy has domestic as well as commercial usage. It is used in solar cookers, solar water heating systems, solar air heating systems, crop dryers, refrigerators, etc. The largest solar plant of India is located in Madhapur, near Bhuj, Gujarat. 

Wind Energy

As the wind in the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Maharashtra blows steadily, comparatively at high speed, the wind turbines can operate efficiently. Hence, wind energy plants/turbines are primarily localized in the coastal areas. The largest wind firm cluster is installed in Tamil Nadu from Nagercoil to Madurai.  

Biogas Energy

Biogas is the gaseous mixture produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen, primarily methane and carbon dioxide. It can be synthesized from kitchen waste (green), agricultural waste containing manure, plant parts, municipal waste, and sewage. Biogas is readily available and hence, acts as a low-cost raw material for electricity generation. 

Tidal Energy

The areas which are situated in the coastal regions of Bay Bengal/ Gulf of Kutch (an inlet of the Arabian sen along the west coast of India), there the energy can be easily extracted from tides rather than the cities which are situated far away from the coastal areas. 

Geo-Thermal Energy

The heat energy present in rocks deep within the earth is called Geothermal energy. The groundwater in these areas absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes warm. It is so hot that when it reaches the earth's surface, it turns into steam used to drive turbines and electricity. These are clean and safe and readily available. Many hot springs or geothermal energy locations are there in India. Among them, the Parvati Valley near Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh is essential.

Important Question and Answers 

1. How are minerals formed in the igneous and metamorphic rocks?

Ans: In metamorphic and igneous rocks (or volcanic rocks), minerals tend to seep into small openings - the cracks and the crevices, joints, and faults. While the smaller mineral fills are called veins, the larger ones are called lodes. Initially, mineral occurrences exist in the liquid/molten or gaseous forms. When they rise through the cracks towards the earth's surface, they cool down and solidify, and get deposited there.

2. Mention some important uses of petroleum. 

Ans: Some of the essential areas of usage of petroleum are 

● Transport sector as motor fuel.  

● At housing complexes for lighting, heating, and cooking purposes. 

● As raw materials for chemical industries. Hundreds of by-products are made from petroleum, such as paint, ethylene, synthetic rubber, fertilizers, pesticides, detergent, plastic, etc. 

Therefore, petroleum has the broadest range of domestic and industrial uses and is often referred to as 'liquid gold'.

3. Why are the heavy industries and thermal power stations located near the coalfields? Where are the tertiary coalfields located?

Ans: Coal is a heavy/bulky mineral. On using it reduces weight as it is reduced to ash. If the industries are located far away from the coalfields, the transportation cost will be higher. The quality of coal will also differ. That is why the heavy industries and thermal power stations are located near the coalfields. Tertiary coalfields are located in the north eastern states such as Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, and Nagaland.

4. Why are petroleum refineries together considered a 'nodal industry?’

Ans: Petroleum refineries together comprise a 'nodal industry' for fertilizers, synthetic textiles, and chemical industries. Apart from being a crucial fuel itself (petrol, diesel), petroleum also yields many by-products such as naphthalene, synthetic rubber, fertilizers, etc., after refining. Thus, petroleum refineries provide raw materials to the industries above, thereby acting as a 'nodal industry.'

5. Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?

Ans: As the country's population is growing continuously, we should use mineral resources in a planned and sustainable manner. Minerals are nonrenewable energy resources; i.e., they will get exhausted after a certain point of time due to over-exploitation. Since they are crucial for our economy and not too many viable alternatives are available yet, we need to conserve them properly.

6. What are the differences between conventional and non-conventional energy?

Ans: The differences between conventional and nonconventional energy resources are as follows:

Conventional Sources of Energy

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

i. They have been in use for a long time. Hence, it is often called the 'traditional source of energy'. 

i. These sources of energy have recently been developed and are still developing.

ii. Conventional sources of energy are non-renewable sources of energy. Excessive use of coal, petroleum etc since a decade will exhaust their stocks.

ii. These are renewable sources of energy which are also known as 'flow' resources and hence can provide a sustainable source of energy for all time.

iii. Most of the energy sources (eg-coal) cause pollution when used.

iii. These are eco-friendly.

Examples- coal, petroleum, natural gas etc 

Examples- solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy etc

7. Why is solar energy distributed largely in the tropical temperature zone like Rajasthan/ Gujarat/ Maharashtra?

Ans: As Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Maharashtra are located in India's tropical, temperate Zone, it receives adequate solar radiation, which is the most favorable consideration for solar energy generation. Hence, solar energy is distributed mainly in these areas. Moreover, there is a great demand for solar power for lighting and water pumping, irrigation, and water purification for drinking in these areas.

Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Notes


A mineral is defined as “a homogenous naturally occurring substance with definite internal structure.” Rocks are a combination of various minerals.

Mode of Occurrence: Minerals occur in combination with other elements in form of ores. They occur in various forms such as:

  • In cracks or crevices of igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  • In layers between sedimentary rocks.

  • Ocean waters have minerals in them.

  • Alluvial deposits in the sand in the valley floor or base of mountains.

Classification of Minerals

Minerals can be classified as:

  • Metallic:

1. Ferrous minerals- Iron, manganese, cobalt, nickel etc. 

2. Non-Ferrous minerals- Copper, bauxite, tin, lead, etc. 

3. Precious minerals- Silver, gold, platinum, etc. 

  • Non-Metallic: Mica, salt, marble, sandstone, etc. are non -metallic minerals. 

  • Energy Minerals: Natural gas, coal, petroleum come under the category of energy minerals.

Ferrous Minerals

The various ferrous minerals are:

  • Iron - India has abundant reserves of iron ore. Magnetite is said to be the finest iron ore with 70% iron content. Hematite is an industrially important ore with 50 to 60% iron content. 

  • Manganese - It is primarily used for manufacturing steel and ferromanganese alloys. It is used for manufacturing insecticides, paints and bleaching powder. 10kgs of manganese is used to prepare a tonne of steel.

Non-Ferrous Minerals

The various non-ferrous minerals are:

  • Copper - A great conductor of electricity with high ductility and malleability and hence used for manufacturing electric cables, electronics and in chemical industries.

  • Bauxite - This mineral occurs where there is a rich deposition of aluminium silicates. Bauxite is the ore for aluminium. Aluminium has high conductivity and malleability.

Non-Metallic Minerals

Mica - Mica is extensively used for the manufacture of electronic goods. It has high dielectric strength, low power, loss factor, resistance to high voltage and insulating properties. It can be clear, black, red, yellow, green or brown.

Rock Minerals

Limestone - Limestone is made up of calcium and magnesium carbonates. It forms the basic raw material for the cement industry. Limestone is also used for smelting of iron ore in the blast furnace.

Conservation of Minerals

Thousands of years are involved in the formation and concentration of minerals. They are non-renewable. Planned and sustainable usage of mineral resources is extremely important. Continuous extraction of mineral ores and their usage may lead to their scarcity and permanent non-availability.

Energy Resources

Energy resources are of two types:

1. Conventional Sources.

2. Non-Conventional Sources.

Conventional Sources of Energy

The various conventional sources of energy are:

  • Coal - Coal is used for the production of electricity for both domestic and commercial usage. Anthracite is the best quality of coal.  Lignite is poor-quality coal with high moisture content. Bituminous coal is a coal that has been subjected to high temperatures while being formed. It is an abundantly found fossil fuel.

  • Petroleum - Petroleum is a raw material for a number of industries. It is used as a fuel for production of heat and lighting and lubricants for various types of machinery.

  • Natural Gas - Natural gas is an eco-friendly fuel which is used extensively in the power and fertilizer industry. CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is used in vehicles and is replacing the liquid polluting fuels.

  • Electricity - Electricity is generated primarily in two ways:

1. Hydroelectricity - Hydroelectricity is produced when running water drives hydro turbines. It is a renewable source of energy.

2. Thermal Electricity - Thermal electricity is produced when steam from the burning of coal, petroleum, and natural gas drives turbines. This is a non-renewable resource as it uses non-renewable fossil fuels.

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

The various non-conventional sources of energy are:

  • Nuclear Energy - This non-conventional energy is obtained by altering the structure of the nucleus of an atom. Uranium and Thorium are two elements used extensively for the generation of nuclear power.

  • Solar Energy - Sunlight is the only source of solar energy. Photovoltaic devices trap solar energy and convert it into electricity.

  • Wind Energy - Here energy of running wind is used for the production of electricity. Wind turbines are set up for this purpose.

  • Biogas - Biogas is produced from the decomposition of naturally occurring organic waste. It is produced from cattle dung. It is a widely used fuel.

  • Tidal Energy - The energy obtained from tides is converted into electricity. It is a form of hydropower. 

  • Geo-Thermal Energy - The heat from the interiors of the earth is used for obtaining energy in form of electricity.

Conservation of Energy

Energy is used in every sector of the nation be it the industries, transport, agriculture, commercial or domestic. Sustainable usage and development of energy and its resources are extremely important. Here are a few possible ways through which you can save energy:

  • Switching to power-saving devices.

  • Keeping lights, fans and other electric appliances switched off while not in use.

  • Travelling using public transports and cycles instead of individual cars or motorbikes.

  • Switching to non-conventional energy sources.

To know more about Mineral and Energy Resources class 10 refer to the Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes PDF by Vedantu. Notes of Geography class 10 chapter 5 are extremely beneficial for your revision and you can quickly revise by going through them before the examination.

CBSE Class 10 Geography Other Chapter Notes

Students can download Class 10 Contemporary India II Revision Notes for all chapters free pdf through the links below.

Related Link

Did You Know?

  • As a step toward sustainable development, the Government of India has set an energy target of installing 175 GW capacity of renewable energy by 2022. This installation includes 100 GW from solar energy, 10 GW from biogas power, 60 GW from wind, and 5 GW from hydropower (the small ones).

  • By 2030, GOI aims to have 60% of its electricity generation of the installed capacity from clean or renewable energy sources.

Students can download the free PDF of CBSE class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources revision notes. It will help students to revise the chapter in a short span of time. Students can revise all complete syllabus of Geography using the revision notes of Geography for Class 10 available on our website. We request all students to prepare well for the board exam and get success in their life. All the very BEST!

FAQs on Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 5 [Free PDF Download]

1. Why are the Mineral and Energy Resources Notes Important?

The Class 10 Minerals and Energy Resources Notes are important because it gives you a detailed idea about the various minerals, their usage and characteristics, their importance in the national economy, their conservation, energy resources, their types and conservation. The chapter is important for your class 10 board examination and these notes will help you to ace the examination with flying colours.

2. What is a Mineral?

A mineral can be defined as “a homogenous naturally occurring substance with definite internal structure.” From the hardest diamonds to the softest talc - all come under the category of minerals. The major categories of minerals are ferrous and non-ferrous minerals. Some minerals from which a metal can be extracted is known as ore. Example - Iron ore is used in the manufacturing of steel, bauxite is the ore of aluminium, etc.

3. What are mineral and energy resources  according to Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources of Class 10 Geography

Chapter 5 of Social Science comprises the Geography portion that deals with Minerals and Energy Resources. The notes for the same are easily available on Vedantu which tells about the various minerals that form the crust of the Earth and its core. Further it tells us how these minerals are actually made up of metals which can be extracted through various processes of refinement and purification. When you read these notes you will get an idea about the minerals and also the energy resources that generate from it.

4. What are the mineral types found?

If you study the core of the Earth then you will find that the crust is nothing but minerals. There are several different types of minerals that have accumulated over time forming layers one after another and created the core crust of the Earth. All the minerals are useful to mankind in some way or the other. These mineral types are as follows:

  • Metallic Minerals (ferrous minerals like iron ore, manganese and non- ferrous minerals like copper, bauxite,etc.)

  • Non-metallic Minerals (Mica)

5. Where can I find the NCERT solution for Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources of Class 10 Geography?

If you want the notes for Chapter 5 Minerals and Energy Resources of Class 10 Geography, then you can visit the site of Vedantu. Vedantu’s platform is quite easy to use as you simply have to connect to your internet connection and visit their page. Once you have the page opened you can now search for the resource that you need for yourself. You will get an option to download the NCERT solutions PDF for free. Also, you can access the study materials on the Vedantu app.

6. Why is coal important?

Coal is always considered to be an important energy resource because of the benefits it has got to offer to mankind. As we know coal is a non- renewable source of energy that has been in use for a long long time and with time its stores are depleting. Owing to its benefits and its reducing availability we must put a check on the over use of such resources. It is a conventional form of energy resource that has been responsible for generating power, heat and steam and also acts as a domestic fuel mainly in India.

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