The Making of a Global World Class 10 Notes History Chapter 3 - PDF Download
When we talk about globalisation, we generally mean a world connected with the internet, television and aeroplanes. However, globalisation is not a modern phenomenon. From time immemorial, people have moved from one place to another in search of knowledge and prospects. The Making of Global World notes by Vedantu will give a detailed account of the movement of the people across the world and how it paved the way for what we know as globalisation. Download the revision notes PDF to get a comprehensive overview of The Making of Global World Class 10 Chapter 3.
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Access Class 10 Social Science Chapter 3 - The Making of Global World Notes
Globalization refers to integrate national economies with the global economies. This actually increases the value of the national marketplace & also helps the country’s economy to develop in a better sense and gain recognition. The History of globalization is a testament to all the events that have led to this drastic social and economic change.
Globalization- It is defined as an economic system which is associated with the free movement of technology, goods, people, and ideas all across the world. This term is normally used to describe the rapid increasing interdependence of the world’s cultures, populations and their growing economies. This change is generally brought by cross-trade b/w different countries across the world.
First World War
Over 30 nations declared this war between 1914 and 1918. The majority were on the side of the Allies, including Serbia, Russia, France, Britain, Italy and the United States. They were opposed by rivals Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the erstwhile Ottoman Empire, who together called the Central Powers.
It was one of the most important route that linked distant places across the world in ancient times. This routes existed before the Christian Era and thrived to its peak until the 15th century. These routes were a great example of booming pre-modern trade & the growing cultural relationships between distant places across the world. Religious Preachers across different faiths ranging from Buddhism, Christianity to Islam had traveled through these routes.
These silk routes were in fact a great source of trade and culture. Historians have identified several of these silk routes In today’s time. These routes are both the land and sea links which were used for trading or exchanging crucial goods like textile & various precious metals.
Conquest, Trade, and Disease:
Conquest between the Portuguese and Spanish and the colonization of America was underway during this time.
The most deadly weapon Spanish conquerors used was called smallpox germs.
American original Inhabitants had almost zero immunity against such diseases.
America's discovery- the vast fertile lands, minerals, & crops paved the way for a global change in that time.
Silver and various other precious metal mines located in Mexico and Peru boosted Europe's wealth & funded trade with Asian countries.
The Indian subcontinent also played a key role in the trade network. It was known for trading knowledge, goods, customs, and so on.
In the nineteenth century, the sudden population boom in Great Britain led to an increase in the demand for food grains.
Food which was imported in Britain was cheaper than indigenous produce.
The corn laws also led to the imposition of restriction in the import of corn. British agriculture couldn’t compete with imports, and huge areas of land was left uncultivated.
Rapid industrial growth in Britain shortage of food also led to the additional food imports.
Food was then transported via ships and railways.
Other items such as rubber, cotton, and coal were also part of the import trade too.
Role of technology
Significant technological inventions of the 19th- century were called telegraph, railways, and steamships.
After the invention of the refrigerated ships, animals were butchered and then were shipped to Europe in the form of frozen meat.
Rinderpest is the deadly and rapidly spreading cattle plague which drastically affected Africa in the 1880s.
It was actually carried by an infected cattle which was imported from British Asia.
Indentured Labor Migration from India
Indentured labor in real sense referred to a bonded laborer who were under a strict contract to work for a particular employer.
Indian indentured laborers were normally recruited to work in Guyana, Surinam, Fiji, Mauritius, and the other Caribbean islands.
Recruitment was done by deceiving them.
On arrival, Laborers found out about the actual harsh working conditions.
This new form of slavery was abolished in year 1921.
Europe was the real epicentre of the first world war.
The world also experienced economic hardships, political instability, & these hardships and economic instabilities were met with the other instabilities which were caused by the second world war.
First world war also led to the mass production of tanks, machine guns, chemical weapons, and aircraft.
Men of the working age were recruited as soldiers from all across the globe.
Great Depression Globally
It was in the period b/w 1929 to mid-1930s.
There was a huge global decline in employment, production, trade, & income.
The agricultural sector was also adversely affected as well as the prices.
Agricultural overproduction also had severe consequences.
Out of the combination of many factors which led to the great depression, agricultural overproduction & the disintegration of the US banking system were two of them.
Withdrawal of US loans also affected multiple countries in real sense.
The US banking system further collapsed during this period, and many banks went bankrupt here In India.
The Indian subcontinent was also drastically affected as well during that time.
Rates of Indian exports and imports extensively declined as prices almost fell.
Bengal jute cultivators were the most affected community here.
A shift of population from village to town and cites was being observed as people migrated to the growing city-side.
The Post-World Era
After 2 decades of the First World War, the Second World War broke out.
The US and USSR came out as two superpowers after the war.
Bretton Woods Institutions.
To secure a further stable economy, a framework was decided by the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, which help at Bretton Woods located in New Hampshire, US.
The World Bank and International Monetary Fund(IMF) were established here.
The World Bank or the International Bank for Reconstruction & Development was established for the post-war era reconstruction.
The IMF was also founded to handle external surpluses and the deficits of the member nations.
IMF and World Bank were famously called as Bretton Twins, and they commenced their operations in year 1957.
The system was as per the fixed exchange rates.
Decolonization and Independence
Most countries in the Asian & African continents became independent in the time.
NAM & the UNO supported their independence.
Developing Countries also coordinated themselves into a
G-77 group to demand an NIEO or New International Economic Order.
NIEO was meant a new system which gives the member countries complete control of their raw materials, national resources, & indigenously produced goods.
Important Questions and Answers
1. State the effect of potatoes on the poor population of Europe & the effects of the Great Potato Famine.
● Potatoes were a crop which incredibly changed the lives of poor Europeans. They began to feed themselves properly & live longer.
● The Great Potato Famine took place in 1846-1849. The Irish farmers were so dependent upon it that when the famine hit , 1,000,000 people died of starvation, and many others migrated to find work.
● It Was estimated that the green potato Famine had caused near to 1 million deaths between 1845 and 1851 either from starvation or hunger-related disease. A further 1 million of Irish people emigrated.This clearly told that Ireland had lost a quarter of this population during those years.
2. How was indentured labor the new system of slavery?
Ans: Poor and the oppressed migrant workers were recruited by agents who gave them false information about working and living conditions. Most workers were unaware of the long sea journeys. They were the. beaten and sometimes imprisoned. They had to experience horrible working and living conditions.
3. What is Corn Law?
Ans: It was introduced in Britain in 1804. According to it, the landowners who dominated the Parliament protected their profits by imposing a duty on thr imported corn.
4. List the effects of Corn Law.
Ans: The Corn Law was then introduced in Britain in 1804. The landowners who were the dominant community in the parliament sought to defend their profits by imposing a duty on imported corn. This led to a growth in British wheat farming and a hike in the bread prices
● Widespread unemployment in the agriculture industry.
● Boosted the rise of capitalist class in urban areas
● Unemployment in the agriculture industry led to shift of laborers moving from agriculture to the industrial division.
5. Name the three flows within the international economic exchanges?
Ans: The flow of trade- trade in goods, minerals, etc. The flow of Labor- migration of workers or people who were looking for employment. The flow of Capital- the movement of capital for both long-term and short-term investments across the globe.
6. Why were Europeans attracted to Africa?
Ans: They were attracted to minerals and the land resources in Africa. Europeans arrived in Africa so as to establish multiple plantations & exploit mines. These goods were then imported back to the Europe. The widespread cattle disease also had already destroyed more than half of the African community livelihood. Mine owners, plantation owners & other colonial governments monopolized which was left of the cattle, forcing the indigenous working African population into the labour market. Africa also had a weak military and eo couldn’t resist the strong British military force.
7. How was Britain economically affected after the First World War?
Ans: Britain borrowed from the US to fund the first world war war. Thus, at the end of the war, Britain was highly burdened with large external debts. The war had almost shaken up Britain's place in the Indian market. With the rise of anti-British feelings in India, as a result, Indian industries were promoted in real manner, and British industries were severely damaged. Widespread unemployment and decline in industrial and agricultural production was seen. Britain couldn't compete with nations like Japan, the USA, and Germany.
8. How did food items facilitate long-distance cultural exchanges?
Ans: Travelers and Traders had introduced new crops through their travels. It was popularly believed that noodles traveled from China and became Spaghetti. Arabs also introduced pasta to Sicily, an island in Italy.
9. What is NIEO?
Ans: G-77 or the 77 developing countries demanded a new International Economic Order (NIEO) so as to gain complete control over their nation's resources, raw materials, & any other manufactured goods in the marketplace.
10. Which crop grown in India was exported by the British to China?
Ans: Opium was widely grown in India & exported to China by the Britishers. The money earned through this export was used to finance importing the tea and other goods from China.
The Silk Route
Vedantu’s Class 10 History Chapter 4 notes begin with the mention of the Silk Routes that connected many countries. The Chinese cargos sailed through these routes to sell silk to the traders and people of other countries. It is obvious that the same route is used for the movement of other goods like Chinese pottery or Indian spices. Not only the products but even the ideology, spirituality and skills travelled through the same route.
Food Too Saw New Places
Just like with the movement of people to new places, cultures and customs reached various new regions. Food too travelled many places. The traders, priests or invaders brought with them the crops of their land to the places they went. The History Class 10 Chapter 3 notes even mention that ready to eat food such as noodles travelled to other parts of the world.
Land up for Grabs
As the transportation system improved, the desire of the people to find new places increased manifold. People also looked for more buyers to sell their products. Before the Nineteenth century, the Indian Ocean acted as an important sea route. The Indian subcontinent used this route for trade.
After Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492, Spain and Portugal took the same route with colonisation in mind. This was not just limited to the region of today's United States. Other North American regions like Mexico and South American regions like Peru got the attention of these conquerors.
The Portuguese brought with them diseases that were unknown in the region of America till then. So, they did not have to wield guns or fight with swords to kill the natives, the diseases did most of the dirty work! Before the Nineteenth century, the European cities were not so well to do while the Asian countries like India or China were quite wealthy.
The Nineteenth Century
From the Nineteenth century onwards, the pace of globalisation became faster. The Making of a Global World notes mention three types of flows in this regard:
More and more traders went too far off places in search of good markets.
People from poverty-stricken countries migrated to wealthy countries in search of work.
Even the capital (money) was transported to newer places and colonies with long term and short term goals in mind.
By this time, the industrialisation in Britain had grown a lot. People had money. They thronged into the cities to get work in the industries. This led to an increased demand for agricultural goods. The neighbouring countries like Russia, America, Australia and Eastern European countries met this demand.
So, by extension of these countries, the sources of food and building better infrastructure like railways or harbours was required. Thousands of labourers were needed for this. As a result, people migrated to these countries in search of work and a better future. History Chapter 3 Class 10 notes inform that almost 50 million people migrated from Europe to countries like America or Australia.
By 1890, the world had changed a lot. Food in England came from far off places like America, the local farming system was no longer there. On the other hand, in these supplier countries, railways, roads and harbours were made to facilitate the smooth movement of goods to Europe. So, these places saw advancements too.
Late Nineteenth Century
This part of The Making of a Global World notes describes the dark side globalisation.
The traders who settled in various parts of the world started ruling those regions and exploited the people and resources.
The Europeans used harsh tactics like heavy taxes and strict inheritance law in Africa. This left the Africans with no choice but to work for the Europeans as labourers.
Many people from India went to the Caribbean Islands, Mauritius and Fiji as indentured labourers.
As the Industrial Revolution happened in England, the exports of India stopped and imported cheap products from Britain. The import of raw materials increased, emptying the riches that India had.
Important Topics Covered under CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 3
Below are the key topics or concepts discussed in Chapter 3 of CBSE Class 10 History.
The Pre-modern World
Silk Routes Link the World
Food Travels: Spaghetti and Potato
Conquest, Disease, and Trade
The Nineteenth Century (1815 – 1914)
A World Economy Takes Shape
Role of Technology
Late Nineteenth-Century Colonialism
Rinderpest, or the Cattle Plague
Indentured Labor Migration from India
Indian Entrepreneurs Abroad
Indian Trade, Colonialism, and the Global System
The Inter-war Economy
Rise of Mass Production and Consumption
The Great Depression
India and the Great Depression
Rebuilding a World Economy: The Postwar Era
Post-war Settlement and Bretton Woods Institution
The Early Post-war Years
Decolonisation and independence
End of Bretton Woods and the Beginning of Globalization
Theodore Levitt coined the term globalisation as per the Newyork Times.
Class 10 History Chapter 3 The Making of a Global World mainly focuses on how globalisation has its effect on the world and Indian economy. Revision Notes on CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 3 help students to get a comprehensive overview of all the above-mentioned concepts. Students can refer to the Revision Notes for last-minute revisions to complete their preparation.
FAQs on The Making of a Global World Class 10 Notes CBSE History Chapter 3 [Free PDF Download]
1. What Form did Globalisation Take During the World Wars?
The World Wars and the ensuing years can be summarized in the below sequence:
During the first World War, most of the powerful countries were at loggerheads with each other.
The war resulted in Europe’s loss of financial dominance. In turn, the US became the primary creditors to these European countries.
The repercussions of the war led to a great economic crisis in Europe.
Meanwhile, in the US, industries flourished with the emergence of visionaries like Henry Ford.
Consumption increased in the US. People bought many modern consumer goods. The housing and construction sector benefited hugely.
In 1929, this economic boom became bearish and the US slipped into a great depression. So, the US stopped being the primary creditor to the world. This made the economies of other countries worse.
In India too, import and exports were deeply affected by the depression.
The Second World war harmed the world economy further.
It was realised that in order to keep an economy strong, people should have continuous buying power. For that, there should be stable jobs.
The IMF and World Bank were created to help the world recover from the devastation of the war (financial).
2. How did the Globalisation Come to be What it is Now?
As the colonised countries gained independence, they had to depend on these institutions for loans. Later, the countries were forced to take loans from Western private banks and lenders. As the US became embroiled in overseas wars, its financial dominance decreased. Meanwhile, companies searched for countries where there were low wages. China fit the description. So, a number of manufacturing hubs were set up in China aimed at bringing the manufacturing cost down. India, too, became a great outsourcing destination for the tech companies.
3. What is the making of the global world?
Making of the Global World discusses the significant processes, events and changes in history that led to the formation of the present global world. The existing social and economic systems didn't suddenly emerge on their own. Instead, these changes are a result of several historical events in the past. Earlier, through the land and the water routes, people could connect or associate with the people of other regions, cultures, languages. But today, after centuries of advancement, the entire world is connected through technological innovation and globalisation.
4. What is Globalisation history class 10?
The chapter discusses Globalisation as the interconnection or integration of the entire world through technological innovation. From the economic perspective, it refers to integrating the national economy with the global economy through the flow of goods and services, technology, people, investments and information across countries. From a historical viewpoint, it connects people belonging to different cultures, ideologies, languages, religions, races and regions. It helps to have better knowledge and understanding of history and promotes cross-cultural harmony.
5. What is pre-modern world class 10?
As discussed in the chapter, the pre-modern era is the time period before the establishment of the Christian Empire Until the 15th century. The pre-modern period's main highlight was the interaction of communities and the movement of people from one region to another. The major developments of this period were the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus and the establishment of the printing press. This period also saw the emergence of several new cities and towns.
6. Can you please provide a detailed Stepwise Study Plan to ace Class 10 History, Chapter 3 - ‘The Making of a Global World?’
The first step to ace Class 10 History Chapter 3 - ‘The Making of a Global World' is to thoroughly read the chapter from the standard NCERT textbook. Try to read the chapter like a story, interconnect concepts to understand better. Learn all the important dates and terminologies with the help of handwritten notes and flowcharts. Avoid rote learning and refer to Vedantu's Revision Notes for this chapter from the page CBSE Class 10 History Chapter 3 Notes. Solve as many NCERT questions and previous year questions to perform well in the exam.
7. What are the best Revision Notes for Class 10 History, Chapter 3 - ‘The Making of a Global World?’
Vedantu's Revision Notes for Class 10 History, Chapter 3- ‘The Making of a Global World' is the best study material for History. These notes provide a summary of all the important points from each topic of the chapter. It simplifies the learning procedure for students. These notes are error-free and are based on the latest CBSE exam pattern, syllabus and marking scheme. If you revise regularly from these notes, you will be able to clear the History exam with flying colours. Vedantu provides these notes at free of cost on the Vedantu app and on the official website.