CBSE Class 8 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 8 Notes - Confronting Marginalisation


Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 8 - PDF Download

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In the previous chapters of the course, we have already learnt about the different groups and experiences of inequality they’ve faced. These groups constantly protested against the exclusion or domination they faced. There has never been a single way of resolving the issue. However, there have always been ways in which various groups have tried to overcome the situation and what efforts were made by the government for the same. The confronting marginalisation class 8 notes provide an overview of how the groups and individuals challenged the existing inequalities. 

We provide you with the Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes to help you gain an overview of the complete chapter. These notes are available in the form of PDF which can be accessed and downloaded easily making the revision process easier.

CBSE Class 8 Political Science (Civics) Chapter 8 Notes - Confronting Marginalisation part-1
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FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is manual scavenging and what are the conditions of the people working in this sector? Explain.

Manual scavenging is defined as the practice of removing the human and animal waste using brooms, baskets and tin plates from the dry latrines and further carrying it on the head to dispose of them to far off disposal grounds. 

A manual scavenger is a person who performs this task. Mainly, Dalit women and young girls performed this task. According to the numbers provided by one of the organisations named Andhra Pradesh-based Safai Karamchari Andolan, about 13 lakh workers just from the Dalit community are employed in this task. 

The manual scavengers had to face serious health hazards because of being exposed to severe subhuman conditions. They had infections which affected their body frequently, and they are paid mere wages of Rs. 30-40 for a day’s task.

2. Why did the Safai Karamchari Andolan file a PIL in 2003? What did they complain about in their petition?

The government passed the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act in 1993. According to this law, the employment of manual scavengers is prohibited and a restriction on the construction of dry latrines was enforced. The Safai Karamchari Andolan filed a PIL in 2003 complaining about the existence of manual scavenging. They sought the enforcement of fundamental rights. This led to the union government and state government to take actions for the same.