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Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 8 (Free PDF Download)

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Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 8 - PDF Download

In the previous chapters of the course, we have already learnt about the different groups and experiences of inequality they’ve faced. These groups constantly protested against the exclusion or domination they faced. There has never been a single way of resolving the issue. However, there have always been ways in which various groups have tried to overcome the situation and what efforts were made by the government for the same. The confronting marginalisation class 8 notes provide an overview of how the groups and individuals challenged the existing inequalities. 

We provide you with the Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes to help you gain an overview of the complete chapter. These notes are available in the form of PDF which can be accessed and downloaded easily making the revision process easier.

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Access Class 8 Social Science - Civics Chapter 08 – Confronting Marginalisation Notes

Inequality and discrimination are experienced by people based on their gender, caste, religion, social status, etc. In our society, there are some vulnerable groups like Dalit, Adivasi communities, ST & SC, and other minority groups who have fought, protested, and struggled against being rejected, mistreated, or dominated by other social groups. So, this chapter concentrates on how their rights are translated into laws to protect these groups from continued exploitation. 

Invoking Fundamental Rights 

  1. The constitution provides a set of principles for our democratic society in the form of a list of fundamental rights that are equal for all Indians. 

  2. Marginalized people have drawn on the fundamental rights in two ways: 

  1. By speaking of their Fundamental Rights, they have forced the government to admit the injustice done to them. 

  2. They didn’t stop there and insisted the government make these laws.

  1. Such struggles which these marginalized people go through to get justice and favourable laws have affected the government to enforce new laws to keep up with the principles of Fundamental Rights.

  2. Article $17$ abolishes untouchability which means no one can prevent Dalits or any citizen from enjoying provisions of entering temples, attaining education, accessing public facilities, etc. As per it, practicing untouchability is unlawful and is not allowed by the democratic government. 

  3. Article $15$ affirms that no citizen of India shall be discriminated against on the basis of race, caste, gender, religion, or place of birth. Dalits used it to get equality in areas where they were denied.

Laws For Marginalised Groups  

  1. Certain laws and policies are made to protect the interest of the marginalised groups in our country. An account of it is given below—

  1. The state government and the central government have made different schemes for the Adivasi communities and Dalit populations. For example, the government provides free hostels and education for Dalit and Adivasi students that may not be available in their localities. 

  2. The government made various laws to end inequality among the communities. One such instance is reservation policies that are very significant nowadays. 

  3. Reservation laws are based on education and employment for Adivasis and Dalits to give them equal opportunities to live in society, develop new ideas and skills. The reservation is not only provided to the Dalits and Adivasis but also is applicable for other marginalised communities and economically backward people. For instance, during admission to colleges or other institutes of professional education, the ‘cut-off’ marks for the marginalised communities are lower and there are some seats reserved exclusively for them. These students also attain special scholarships from the government.

Protecting The Rights Of Adivasis And Dalits 

Other than policies, our country provides specific laws against the exploitation and discrimination of the marginalised communities. 

The $1989$ SCs and the STs Act 

  1. This act was enforced to respond to the demands put forward by the Adivasis and Dalits that the government must seriously look into the grave issues of humiliation and ill-treatment faced by them in daily life. 

  2. The Dalit communities demanded new laws for the violence they had been facing for a long time. 

  3. Between $1970$ and $1980$, Adivasi communities also organized and demanded equal rights for their land and other resources to be returned to them. They had to withstand the anger and violence of other powerful social groups in society. 

  4. The new act included the following:

  1. In response to the ill-treatment, this act introduced a list of various crimes that are too horrendous to even contemplate. This act not only describes horrifying crimes but also tells people all the dreadful deeds human beings can do. These include physical and moral humiliation by forcing a member of an ST or SC community to eat or drink a toxic thing, remove their clothes, or any such discriminating act. 

  2. It also includes punishment or penalty against people who assault any women belonging to tribal, Dalit, SC or ST communities.

  3. It also includes a list of actions to be taken against those who forcibly snatch away the resources of Dalits and Adivasis and make them perform slave labour forcibly. In other words, anyone who cultivates or occupies the land allotted to a member of SCs or STs will face severe punishment.

Demands of the Adivasis and the $1989$ Act 

  1. The $1989$ Act was also significant for the reason that in the same year it was used by the Adivasi activists to demand their traditional land and the right to occupy it.

  2. While putting forward this demand and protesting,  the Adivasis pointed out that this act confirmed that the land belonging to the tribal people could not be sold to other non-tribal people or government.

  3. An Adivasi activist, C.K. Janu stated that if the tribe had been evicted and unable to go back to their original land, they must be compensated for it. The government must provide plans and policies for those people to live and work anywhere else. She also blamed the government for letting the non-tribals encroach on their land and exploit it. 


A law or a policy is just done on paper. But people must make an effort to turn these paper works into reality. For this, they should continuously work on these principles that guide citizens' and leaders' actions. The need for equal respect and dignity is for everyone, - the majority classes, the minorities, and the tribal people.

Important Questions And Answers 

  1. What are the fundamental rights that Dalits can draw to insist if they're not treated as equal or in a dignified manner? 

Ans: The fundamental rights which the Dalits can draw to get treated equally and in a dignified manner are as follows—

  1. Right to freedom: It includes the freedom to express and speech, the right to move freely and form associations, and the right to practice any business and profession. 

  2. Right to equality: As per this right, every person is treated equally before the law. This means that there is no discrimination based on an individual’s socioeconomic background, caste, religion, etc.

  3. Right against exploitation: By this right, one can stand up against any form of forced labour and human trafficking.


  1. Why does the Adivasi activist use the 1989 act to fight dispossession? 

Ans: The Adivasi activist, C.K. Janu, believes that Adivasi can use the 1989 act to fight against dispossession because of the following reasons—

  1. It helps the tribal people not get evicted from their resources and land forcibly. 

  2. Under this act, The land and possessions of the tribal people cannot be brought or sold by any non-tribal encroachers. The Constitution gave the right to possess their traditional land to the tribal people.

  1. Write down the constitutional provisions that gave social justice against discrimination.

Ans: Some of the constitutional provisions that provided social justice against discrimination are as follows—

  1. Article $14$: Right to equality 

  2. Article $15(1)$: It prohibits discrimination against any citizen in terms of religion, caste, race gender, or place of birth.

  3. Article $16(1)$: It promotes equality in getting an opportunity.

  4. Article $17$: It bans untouchability and punishes those who practice this offense.

  5. Article $38$: It includes policies that aim to secure citizens.

  6. Article $41$: It provides security to write,  work, get public assistance, and educational facilities.

  7. Article $325$ and $326$: It includes political rights for citizens.

  1. Write down the constitutional provisions that provide social justice for SCs and STs.

Ans: The constitutional provisions for social justice to SCs and STs are as follows—

  1. Article $15(4)$: It promotes the development of backward classes

  2. Article $46$: It promotes education and the economic interest of lower sections of society. 

  3. Article $330$ and $332$: It gives reservation of seats in state assemblies and parliament.

  4. Article $338$: It provides provisions by India's president for appointing special officers to investigate matters related to the SC or ST community. 

  1. Define the following terms assertive, confront, ostracise, and dispossessed. 

Ans: The above-mentioned terms are defined as follows—

  1. Assertive: A person or a group of people who express themselves and their views very strongly is said to be assertive. 

  2. Confront: Its literal meaning is to come across someone to argue over something or to challenge the other person’s views. In this chapter, confront is used in reference to the lower-class groups challenging their marginalization. 

  3. Ostracise: The meaning of ostracising is to abolish a group or individual. In this chapter, ostracism is to boycott an individual and his/her family. 

  4. Dispossessed: The literal meaning of disposed to be deprived of one’s own property or resources. In this chapter, the term dispossessed means to give up the authority of one’s own land and property.

  1. What are the six major fundamental rights of the constitution of India?

Ans: The six major fundamental rights of the Indian Constitution are as follows— 

  1. Right to equality 

  2. Right to freedom 

  3. Right against exploitation 

  4. Right to freedom of accepting any religion 

  5. Cultural and educational rights

  6. Right to constitutional remedies

  1. Define the term policy and morally reprehensible 

Ans: These terms can be defined as follows—

  1. Policy: Policy is defined as the action that provides principles to be followed. In this chapter, policies refer to the laws and actions made by the government.

  2. Morally reprehensible: It is the act that violates all the rules of dignity and decency which must be there in society. It refers to an act that is done hiddenly against all the laws which society has accepted.

  1. What do you mean by manual scavenging? 

Ans: The term manual scavenging is defined as the practice of removing human and animal wastes from latrines using brooms and baskets, carrying it on heads, and disposing of those at a distance. A person who does this kind of job is known as a manual scavenger. This work was done by Dalit women and girls. More than $13$ lakh persons belonging to Dalit communities do this job and worked in $96$ lakhs dry latrines of private companies managed by the municipalities.

  1. What do you mean by reservation policy? 

Ans: The reservation policy of the government can be defined as follows—

  1. The reservation policy is the percentage of seats that are reserved in the government jobs, interstate examinations, and educational institutions for the socially and economically backward citizens or STs and SCs.

  2. The origin of the reservation policy was with the Government of India Act, $1919$.

  3. As those SCs, STs, or other such communities are badly represented in institutions and services, the reservation policy was introduced to uplift them. 

  4. In India, $50$% of seats are reserved for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other backward castes. 

Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation Notes

Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes

The several groups and individuals including Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims and women have taken a step forward to protest against the existing inequalities. All of them were always of the opinion that they possess equal rights as all other, being rightful citizens of a democratic country. 

Invoking Fundamental Rights

The constitution lays down a list of fundamental rights that are available to all citizens equally. The marginalised sector has gained these rights in two ways, mainly, forcing the government to realise the injustice done to them by insisting on the fundamental rights. Secondly, they have influenced the government to enforce these laws. 

  • As per the article 17 of the constitution, it states that untouchability has been abolished and is a punishable crime now. No Dalit can be prevented from entering temples, educating themselves and getting their basic rights. 

  • As per the article 15 of the constitution, no individual must be discriminated based on caste, creed, colour or sex.

  • The constitution ensures that cultural justice is provided to all the groups eliminating the domination by any major group. 

Laws for the Marginalised

Specific laws are made by the government to protect the marginalised sector of the nation. Alongside, several committees are formed and surveys are undertaken to devise some policies and laws. 

Promoting Social Justice

The state and central government put in efforts for the implementation of constitutional policies in tribal areas or regions with a high Dalit population. One of the significant policies is the reservation policy. The laws justify the reservation of seats for this section of the society as providing them with equal opportunities to learn and work. 

Protecting the Rights of Dalits and Adivasis

The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 was framed to fulfil the demands of Dalits and other castes that the humiliation and ill-treatment faced by the government must be taken seriously. The communities took drastic actions during the 1970s and 1980s. 

Under This Act, Several Forms of Crimes Are Distinguished Which Include

  • Modes of humiliation which are physically horrific and morally reprehensible. 

  • Listing of actions which dispossess the Dalits and Adivasis. 

  • Recognizes the crimes against Dalit and tribal women. 

Adivasis Demands and the 1989 Act

The 1989 act holds yet another important reason which makes it significant. The Adivasis use this act to defend their right of occupying the land that was traditionally theirs. According to this act, the land belonging to tribal people can be bought by or sold to the bob-tribal people. C.K. Janu is an Adivasi activist who has taken actions against the government, allowing the non-tribal encroachers to enter the tribal area and forcefully evicting them from their places. She also brought into consideration the people who have already been evicted. These people are to be provided with compensation.

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A law or a policy is just done on paper. But people must make an effort to turn this paperwork into reality. For this, they should continuously work on these principles that guide citizens' and leaders' actions. The need for equal respect and dignity is for everyone - the majority classes, the minorities, and the tribal people. For an enhanced comprehension of this subject, NCERT - Class 8 Social Chapter 8 - Confronting Marginalisation, thoughtfully prepared by experienced educators at Vedantu, is your invaluable companion. These notes break down the complexities of Confronting Marginalisation into easily digestible sections, helping you grasp new concepts and navigate through questions effortlessly quickly in the last minute as well. By immersing yourself in these notes, you not only prepare for your studies more efficiently but also develop a profound understanding of the subject matter.

FAQs on Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 8 (Free PDF Download)

1. What is manual scavenging and what are the conditions of the people working in this sector? Explain.

Manual scavenging is defined as the practice of removing the human and animal waste using brooms, baskets and tin plates from the dry latrines and further carrying it on the head to dispose of them to far off disposal grounds. 

A manual scavenger is a person who performs this task. Mainly, Dalit women and young girls performed this task. According to the numbers provided by one of the organisations named Andhra Pradesh-based Safai Karamchari Andolan, about 13 lakh workers just from the Dalit community are employed in this task. 

The manual scavengers had to face serious health hazards because of being exposed to severe subhuman conditions. They had infections which affected their body frequently, and they are paid mere wages of Rs. 30-40 for a day’s task.

2. Why did the Safai Karamchari Andolan file a PIL in 2003? What did they complain about in their petition?

The government passed the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act in 1993. According to this law, the employment of manual scavengers is prohibited and a restriction on the construction of dry latrines was enforced. The Safai Karamchari Andolan filed a PIL in 2003 complaining about the existence of manual scavenging. They sought the enforcement of fundamental rights. This led to the union government and state government to take actions for the same.

3. What is confronting marginalisation?

Chapter 8 of Class 8 Political Science is all about the title ‘Confronting Marginalisation’. Marginalization in simple terms is about excluding people and communities who belong to the minority groups. Confronting marginalization means Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, women, and other marginal groups stand up to argue about being citizens of the same country and therefore having equality in all rights that the country provides to its citizens. Laws involving the rights and protection of these communities are also presented to students.

4. What is the meaning of the term confront in Chapter 8 Class 8 Social science?

In the chapter ‘Confronting Marginalisation’ in Class 8, students learn about how different groups are oppressed in the country and how they stand up to fight for their rights. Before they go into the depths of the chapter, students need to understand what the term ‘confront’ means. Confront is a word that has the meaning of coming face to face with something difficult or challenging something or someone, particularly authority and its principles, and this is called challenging marginalization.

5. What are public facilities class 8?

Public facilities are those services that are made available to the public through the government and the various services they run. These facilities are absolutely necessary for citizens of a country and it is the government's responsibility and duty to provide these facilities to its citizens equally without any marginalization. Facilities like electricity, public transport, schools, colleges, other educational institutions, hospitals, etc. form the sector of public facilities. Their benefits can be reaped by a large number of people together.

6. What are the benefits of using revision notes to study Chapter 8 for studying Social Science for Class 8?

Once students understand how revision notes might aid them with their exam preparations, they will find them very useful. Things can get very hard and confusing for students in Chapter 8 of Class 8 Politics, which deals with new concepts like marginalization and its challenges. Vedantu's notes are among the best since they provide extensive, yet brief notes that simplify all of these new and difficult concepts, allowing students to learn more easily and receive last-minute assistance in their exams. The revision notes can be downloaded free of cost and are also available on the vedantu app.

7. What concept is covered in Chapter 8 of Class 8 Social Science?

Chapter 8 covers what the title says, ‘Confronting Marginalisation’. This particular chapter introduces the concepts of marginalization and the various groups challenging this marginalization. Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, and Women are often the marginalized groups in the country. The chapter aims to cover the following concepts:

  • Invoke fundamental rights

  • Laws for marginalized communities such that they remain protected from these issues

  • Promote social justice for equality

  • Protecting the rights of minorities like the Adivasis and Dalits

  • Different Acts against marginalization.