Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 8 - PDF Download
In the previous chapters of the course, we have already learnt about the different groups and experiences of inequality they’ve faced. These groups constantly protested against the exclusion or domination they faced. There has never been a single way of resolving the issue. However, there have always been ways in which various groups have tried to overcome the situation and what efforts were made by the government for the same. The confronting marginalisation class 8 notes provide an overview of how the groups and individuals challenged the existing inequalities.
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Class 8 Social Science Civics Chapter 8 Confronting Marginalisation Notes
Confronting Marginalisation Class 8 Notes
The several groups and individuals including Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims and women have taken a step forward to protest against the existing inequalities. All of them were always of the opinion that they possess equal rights as all other, being rightful citizens of a democratic country.
Invoking Fundamental Rights
The constitution lays down a list of fundamental rights that are available to all citizens equally. The marginalised sector has gained these rights in two ways, mainly, forcing the government to realise the injustice done to them by insisting on the fundamental rights. Secondly, they have influenced the government to enforce these laws.
As per the article 17 of the constitution, it states that untouchability has been abolished and is a punishable crime now. No Dalit can be prevented from entering temples, educating themselves and getting their basic rights.
As per the article 15 of the constitution, no individual must be discriminated based on caste, creed, colour or sex.
The constitution ensures that cultural justice is provided to all the groups eliminating the domination by any major group.
Laws for the Marginalised
Specific laws are made by the government to protect the marginalised sector of the nation. Alongside, several committees are formed and surveys are undertaken to devise some policies and laws.
Promoting Social Justice
The state and central government put in efforts for the implementation of constitutional policies in tribal areas or regions with a high Dalit population. One of the significant policies is the reservation policy. The laws justify the reservation of seats for this section of the society as providing them with equal opportunities to learn and work.
Protecting the Rights of Dalits and Adivasis
The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 was framed to fulfil the demands of Dalits and other castes that the humiliation and ill-treatment faced by the government must be taken seriously. The communities took drastic actions during the 1970s and 1980s.
Under This Act, Several Forms of Crimes Are Distinguished Which Include
Modes of humiliation which are physically horrific and morally reprehensible.
Listing of actions which dispossess the Dalits and Adivasis.
Recognizes the crimes against Dalit and tribal women.
Adivasis Demands and the 1989 Act
The 1989 act holds yet another important reason which makes it significant. The Adivasis use this act to defend their right of occupying the land that was traditionally theirs. According to this act, the land belonging to tribal people can be bought by or sold to the bob-tribal people. C.K. Janu is an Adivasi activist who has taken actions against the government, allowing the non-tribal encroachers to enter the tribal area and forcefully evicting them from their places. She also brought into consideration the people who have already been evicted. These people are to be provided with compensation.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
1. What is manual scavenging and what are the conditions of the people working in this sector? Explain.
Manual scavenging is defined as the practice of removing the human and animal waste using brooms, baskets and tin plates from the dry latrines and further carrying it on the head to dispose of them to far off disposal grounds.
A manual scavenger is a person who performs this task. Mainly, Dalit women and young girls performed this task. According to the numbers provided by one of the organisations named Andhra Pradesh-based Safai Karamchari Andolan, about 13 lakh workers just from the Dalit community are employed in this task.
The manual scavengers had to face serious health hazards because of being exposed to severe subhuman conditions. They had infections which affected their body frequently, and they are paid mere wages of Rs. 30-40 for a day’s task.
2. Why did the Safai Karamchari Andolan file a PIL in 2003? What did they complain about in their petition?
The government passed the Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act in 1993. According to this law, the employment of manual scavengers is prohibited and a restriction on the construction of dry latrines was enforced. The Safai Karamchari Andolan filed a PIL in 2003 complaining about the existence of manual scavenging. They sought the enforcement of fundamental rights. This led to the union government and state government to take actions for the same.
3. What is confronting marginalisation?
Chapter 8 of Class 8 Political Science is all about the title ‘Confronting Marginalisation’. Marginalization in simple terms is about excluding people and communities who belong to the minority groups. Confronting marginalization means Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, women, and other marginal groups stand up to argue about being citizens of the same country and therefore having equality in all rights that the country provides to its citizens. Laws involving the rights and protection of these communities are also presented to students.
4. What is the meaning of the term confront in Chapter 8 Class 8 Social science?
In the chapter ‘Confronting Marginalisation’ in Class 8, students learn about how different groups are oppressed in the country and how they stand up to fight for their rights. Before they go into the depths of the chapter, students need to understand what the term ‘confront’ means. Confront is a word that has the meaning of coming face to face with something difficult or challenging something or someone, particularly authority and its principles, and this is called challenging marginalization.
5. What are public facilities class 8?
Public facilities are those services that are made available to the public through the government and the various services they run. These facilities are absolutely necessary for citizens of a country and it is the government's responsibility and duty to provide these facilities to its citizens equally without any marginalization. Facilities like electricity, public transport, schools, colleges, other educational institutions, hospitals, etc. form the sector of public facilities. Their benefits can be reaped by a large number of people together.
6. What are the benefits of using revision notes to study Chapter 8 for studying Social Science for Class 8?
Once students understand how revision notes might aid them with their exam preparations, they will find them very useful. Things can get very hard and confusing for students in Chapter 8 of Class 8 Politics, which deals with new concepts like marginalization and its challenges. Vedantu's notes are among the best since they provide extensive, yet brief notes that simplify all of these new and difficult concepts, allowing students to learn more easily and receive last-minute assistance in their exams. The revision notes can be downloaded free of cost and are also available on the vedantu app.
7. What concept is covered in Chapter 8 of Class 8 Social Science?
Chapter 8 covers what the title says, ‘Confronting Marginalisation’. This particular chapter introduces the concepts of marginalization and the various groups challenging this marginalization. Adivasis, Dalits, Muslims, and Women are often the marginalized groups in the country. The chapter aims to cover the following concepts:
Invoke fundamental rights
Laws for marginalized communities such that they remain protected from these issues
Promote social justice for equality
Protecting the rights of minorities like the Adivasis and Dalits