Biology may seem easy but can get tough at times. Our NCERT solutions for class 12 Biology can ensure a smooth sail whenever you want to clarify the solutions to any question. The National Council of Education and Training (NCERT) is responsible for setting the curriculum for all schools that follow the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) across the nation. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology provided in this page contains solutions that are prescribed for textbooks you use in the CBSE syllabus. The Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions are highly beneficial for students to understand concepts in a structured, easy-to-digest manner and develop better theoretical and analytical skills that are required in various exams. Answers have been provided in a step-by-step and logical manner related to various chapters such as Microbes in Human Welfare, Reproduction in Organism, Reproductive Health, and others, in the NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology PDF file. All CBSE Class 12 Biology NCERT solutions are prepared and reviewed by the best Biology teachers from the Vedantu faculty, helping you learn concepts easily and perform better academically. The NCERT Biology Class 12 Solutions Free PDF is included on the Vedantu website as a free download which anyone can access with a basic internet connection on Vedantu.com and can easily open with a PDF application.
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Biology NCERT Solutions for Class 12 - Free PDF Download (All Exercises are Covered with Answers)
Biology is basically the study of life and other elements that constitute it and has revolutionized the understanding of the human body. It helps one see the bigger and clear picture of the planet and know what happens on the inside of the bodies of various organisms. From evolution theory, gene therapy, advances in biotechnology, and the biopharmaceuticals development for treating various illnesses – a thorough understanding of biology help one become a better student of life. The NCERT Biology Class 12 Solutions Free PDF download includes solutions pertaining to various important chapters of high school textbooks. Studying these solutions prescribed in the PDF files allow you to develop a foundational knowledge of different biological concepts which further help to better prepare for various competitive and board exams. Preparation for entrance exams becomes a seamless process as studying these solutions also help one prepare for exams like NEET. The below given chapter wise details are Class 12 NCERT Biology.
Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction in organisms is a very important informative chapter in class 12th Biology. It is about the reproduction process in different multicellular and unicellular organisms. In class-12th ‘Reproduction in Organism’ chapter, the student will get the opportunity of studying Sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms through pre-fertilization, post-fertilization, and fertilization. And also about asexual reproduction in a unicellular organism through binary fission, fragmentation, spore formation, and budding. All are properly and very clearly summarized with the help of diagrams and examples. Besides these, the textbook holds many important previous years’ questions, exercises, and sample papers as well as related to this chapter.
Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction In Flowering
Students must have read about sexual reproduction in flowering many times in previous classes but in brief. In this chapter you will be studying in depth about morphology, process and structure of sexual reproduction in flowering plants, pre-fertilization: about the structures and events, and the double fertilization process, in post-fertilization: the events, and structures, formation of seed, fruits, endosperm, Apomixis and Polyembryony, how flowers get prepare for fertilization, about the need for fertilization, about stamen, pollen grain, pistil, megasporangium (ovule), embryo sac, pollination, as a sub-topic about embryo and seed.
Chapter 3: Human Reproduction
Students have learned about human reproduction many times in previous classes. But in class-12th there are more than enough to know in the chapter of Human Reproduction. Human Reproduction, in general, is an ability to produce young ones by living organism specifically by humans (male & female). In this chapter, students shall be able to read about both male and female reproductive system, three types of fertilization (pre, post and general) and about implantation process, about pregnancy and embryo development, primary and secondary sex organs, menstrual cycle, about the key stages of pregnancy, changes in the growth of the embryo, changes in the process of lactation etc.
Chapter 4: Reproductive Health
What is the importance of reproductive health? Why maintain reproductive health is a necessity? And what are the processes, which are widely adopted to keep it safe? These are few such questions, which are part of awareness and knowledge can only be understood after reading about it in details. In this chapter of class-12th, students can significantly raise their awareness by reading about sexually transmitted diseases, about the cause of infertility, when pregnancy is medically terminated, how to prevent unlimited population and birth control, health care of a child at the stage of pre and post pregnancy, key reasons for maternal and infant mortality, etc.
Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
A quite interesting chapter in class 12th bio. This chapter will help the students in gaining in-depth knowledge in regard to ‘Principles of Inheritance and Variation’. As we all know that heredity is a process, which deals with the transferring of traits and genetic information from parents to offspring. And this process keeps running from generation to generation. This topic will give students’ the knowledge about inheritance of one gene and two genes, mutation, and genetic disorder, Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, Polygenic inheritance, Mendel’s law of Inheritance, usual sex determination in different organisms, Mendelian Disorder, Pedigree Analysis, etc. all are very clearly explained with appropriate flowcharts, diagrams, and figures.
Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
This chapter is considered extremely important in the biology of class-11th and 12th. This topic provides students’ detailed knowledge about DNA, Searching for Genetic Material, Transcription, Genetic Code, Human Genome Project, The Enzymes, Types of RNA, Mutation and Genetic Code, tRNA- the Adapter molecule, Translation, Replication, RNA World, Regulation of Gene Expression, Packaging of DNA Helix, Properties of Genetic Material (DNA versus RNA), main features of Human Genome and Application, Transcription Unit, Transcription Unit With Gene etc. The whole chapter is kept very clear with the help of related diagrams, figures and flow charts are explained, gives students a chance of clear learning with understanding.
Chapter 7: Evolution
Evolution is simply the study related to the formation of life on earth. This chapter gives knowledge about the evolution of every existing flora and fauna on earth. This chapter consists of topics like the process of biological evolution, mechanism of evolution, about Adaptive Radiation, Hardy-Weinberg principle, the origin of life, the theory of the evolution of life forms, the evidence of evolution, the origin and evolution of humans, a short account of Evolution, etc. For a more clear understanding of this chapter, important diagrams, flowchart, exercises, figures, and sample papers are significantly added in the textbook.
Chapter 8: Human Health and Disease
The chapter of Human Health and Diseases is such a topic that will significantly offer the student a great help in gaining appropriate knowledge about health and diseases. The chapter will provide students detail learning about different types of diseases, their preventions, and treatments, about common diseases in human, general inner immunity, active and passive immunity, drugs and alcohol abuse, vaccination and immunization, effects of drugs and alcohol, how to prevent and control their intake, about the fatal life-taking diseases like AIDS and Cancer etc. The whole chapter is equipped with a clear explanation based diagrams, flow charts, and figures for a comprehensive understanding of the concepts during learning.
Chapter 9: Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production
Strategies For Enhancement In Food Production is a very interesting chapter in class 12th levels bio. This chapter in class 12th contains detailed information about the Animal Husbandry, Breeding of Plants for Disease Resistance, Breeding of Plants for Developing Resistance, Single Cell Protein and Tissue Culture, Management of Farms and Farms Animals, Bee Keeping, Agriculture, Fisheries, etc. These topics are very clearly explained with related diagrams, figures, flowcharts and important question and answer containing exercises for better understanding of the concepts for students.
Chapter 10: Microbes In Human Welfare
Microbes are tiny organisms on earth. These are specifically protozoa, fungi, bacteria, plants viruses, viroids, and prions, etc. Students so far have learned about microbes in brief in all previous classes but in class 12 they will learn the diversity of good and bad microbes, microbes in household and industrial products, in sewage treatments, in biofertilization and biocontrol agents, in production of biogas, in antibiotics, chemicals, fermented beverages, about enzymes and its types, etc. These all are explained in details with the help of flowcharts, diagrams, and illustration for clear and easy understanding of students.
Chapter 11: Biotechnology Principles and Processes
Biotechnology Principles and Processes, this chapter is quite interesting and informative. This chapter in class-12th biology is described as much as possible in details. This chapter consists of the topics principle of biotechnology, the process of DNA Technology and Recombinant of DNA Technology, key Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology, Isolation of Genetic DNA Material, the obtaining of Foreign Gene Product, Cloning Vector, Restriction Enzymes, insertion of Recombinant DNA in the Host cell/organism, etc. For an easy and clear understanding of all the topics, significant diagrams, flow charts, and the illustration are added in the chapter.
Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application
This chapter is quite valuable in class-12th bio. It is related to the development of biological technology and the application of biological organisms for human welfare. It gives knowledge about those technologies and techniques are made of living organisms such as by plants, animals, and microbes. The chapter includes the topics: Biotechnological applications in agriculture, in medicines, animals and their metabolic machinery, transgenic animals, how biotechnology has helped humans by the products made of microbes, animals, plants and the metabolic machinery, etc. The whole chapter is very clearly summarized with the adding of related diagrams, flowcharts, figures, and illustration, etc. along with important exercises.
Chapter 13: Organisms and Population
To learn this chapter is considered quite important from exam point of view to gain better marks in the examination. This chapter includes topics such as organism and its environment, niche, big abiotic factors affecting the development of organism and its environment (these factors are water, soil, light, etc.), population attributes, growth, mortality, adaptation, emigration, immigration, growth model of exponential and logistic growth, phenomena of population interaction such as parasitism, commensalism, predation, competition, mutualism and amensalism etc. For the understanding of the students with clarity, many important diagrams, figures, illustrations, and flow charts are added up with paragraphs.
Chapter 14: Ecosystem
The topic ecosystem is about all the plants, animals and microbes living on earth interacting with each other and also with their surrounding environments such as soil, air, and water. This topic is very important to study for the exam to secure better marks in bio. In this chapter of class-12th, students will gain knowledge about key structures of the ecosystem, the functioning of the ecosystem, ecological pyramid and succession, Plants’ Succession, Nutrient Cycling, Carbon Cycling Ecosystem, Productivity, and Decomposition, etc. These all topics are very clearly defined with add up of diagrams, flow charts, revision notes, and figures, etc. for the clearance of the concept well.
Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation
It’s a detailed chapter in a class 12th biology textbook. This chapter is related to the study of all living organisms such as plants, animals, and microbes exist on the ecosystem of earth, and about their conservation. It is one of the important chapters in the textbook of biology for the exam. This chapter will provide students the learning about the importance of biodiversity, its structures, types, gradual development, conservation and degradation, the significance of species diversity in the ecosystem, conservation and loss of biodiversity, genetic diversity of species, relationship area of species and many other interesting topics. For the convenience in learning important diagrams and illustrations are included in the chapter.
Chapter 16: Environmental Issue
The environmental issue is an environmental threat. It has become a serious issue today for the increasing rate of industrialization in many world’s nations. The environmental issue is the environmental pollutions, the mixing of contaminated air, water, and land with harmful gasses emitted by industries. This chapter primarily deals with the topics of harmful effects of pollution, deforestation, and Global Warming with air and water pollution and its controls, about Agrochemicals and their effects, Ozone Depletion, Greenhouse Effect, Radioactive Wastes, case study on integrated wastewater treatments and remedy for plastic wastes, etc. This chapter is made quite interesting and easy to learn with the adding of Diagrams, Flow Charts, and Figures, etc.
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NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter wise Solutions - Free PDF Download