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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Chapter 1 - The Last Lesson

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Class 12 English NCERT Solutions Flamingo Chapter 1 - The Last Lesson - Free PDF Download

English, both as a subject and language, holds immense importance in our lives. This is the reason this subject is introduced in the school-level academics. English is one of the most scoring subjects in the syllabus of CBSE Class 12. The Class 12 English syllabus comprises two books namely, Flamingo and Vistas. The NCERT Solutions English Flamingo Chapter 1 consists of all the answers from this chapter. You can download the PDF for NCERT Solutions from Vedantu for free and refer to the answers to get a better understanding of the chapter.

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NCERT Solutions for Class 12


Class 12 English

Subject Parts:

Part 1 Flamingo

Chapter Name:

Chapter 1 - The Last Lesson


Text, Videos, Images and PDF Format

Academic Year:



English and Hindi

Available Materials:

  • Chapter Wise

  • Exercise Wise

Other Materials

  • Important Questions

  • Revision Notes

Access NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter – 1 The Last Lesson


1. Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meanings from the context.

  • In great dread of 

Ans: fearful in anticipation of something

  • Counted on 

Ans: to rely or trust on somebody/something

  • Thumbed at the edges 

Ans: worn or soiled edges caused by frequent handling

  • In unison 

Ans: something happening or being done at the same time

  • A great bustle 

Ans: an excited (and often noisy) activity or a rapid, active commotion

  • Reproach ourselves with 

Ans: to express disapproval, criticism, or disappointment

Think as You Read:

1. What was Franz expected to be prepared with for school that day?

 Ans: The lesson on principle was expected to be prepared by Franz.

2. What did Franz notice that was unusual about the school that day?

Ans: The school had lots of hustle and bustle in the morning. The was commotion caused by the opening and closing of desks, lessons being repeated in unison, and THE rapping of a ruler on the desk. Everything was missing that day. There was a strange stillness in the air that was actually a characteristic of a “Sunday Morning”.

3. What had been put up on the bulletin board?

Ans: An order from Berlin for the general public was displayed on the bulletin board. It mentioned only German to be taught to students in the schools of Alsace and Lorraine.

Think as You Read

1. What changes did the order from Berlin cause in school that day?

Ans: The order from Berlin stated that German would be taught in all the schools. There was a general sadness about not being able to learn and respect your mother tongue for long. They were forced to learn the language of the oppressors. The school came to a standstill and Mr. Hamel wore his green coat that he wore on special occasions. He taught the last lesson more lovingly and sympathetically. The villagers also came to attend the classes and sat on the backbenches as a tribute to Mr. Hamel for teaching their native language for so long.

2. How did Franz's feelings about M. Hamel and school change?

Ans: Franz never enjoyed going to school. The news came as a shock to him and he was sad about this lesson being the last French lesson that Mr. Hamel would teach. He never liked him but grew sympathetic towards him, understanding the agony and pain he must be going through. The idea of being separated from him forever pained him and he forgot about his crankiness and ruler. He wished that he would have paid attention in the classes earlier. Mr. Hamel taught so lovingly that day that even the difficult concepts appeared easy.

Understanding the Text

1. The people in this story suddenly realize how precious their language is to them. What shows you this? Why does this happen?

Ans: The notice on the bulletin stated that German would be taught in all schools instead of French. The whole village was unhappy about this order from Berlin. In school, the regular commotion was replaced with silence. Few villagers came to attend the class as a last tribute to Mr. Hamel for teaching their mother tongue and their repentance for not putting enough effort to learn it. Mr. Hamel also stated that we realize the importance of something when we lose it and similar was the case with their language, French.


2.  Franz thinks, "Will they make them sing in German, even the pigeons?" What could this mean?

(There could be more than one answer.)

Ans: Language carries the heritage and culture of the speaker. It connects an individual to their roots and culture. It’s not only a means of communication but binds people speaking the same language together. Franz points out the fact that the government can force them to learn their language forcibly at school but they can’t change the love that the people have for the language. They might learn the language in school but still won’t lose touch with their language and find every possible occasion to speak or sing in it. They can cage the spirit of the humans but the birds are free. They can’t capture them nor their will to communicate and love their language.

Talking about the text

1. "When a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison." Can you think of examples in history where a conquered people had their language taken away from them or had a language imposed on them?

Ans: Some examples of the native language taken away from its people and/or imposition of the language of the conqueror are:

(a) Portuguese became the lingua franca of Angola.

(b) English imposed on the various Celtic peoples.

(c) Spanish imposed on the Basques and the Catalans.

(d) Turkish imposed on the Kurds.


2. What happens to a linguistic minority in a state? How do you think they can keep their language alive?

For example Punjabis in Bangalore Tamilians in Mumbai Kannadigas in Delhi Gujaratis in Kolkata

Ans: A linguistics minority doesn’t have much liberty to propagate their language. They often have to learn the language of the majority of speakers so that they can blend and be accepted in society. Language becomes a barrier in communication because of this and blocks interaction. This makes universal language like English quite popular. The language represents the culture of an individual and must be respected and accepted. It allows an individual to be more authentic and keeps them alive and happy from within.


3. Is it possible to carry pride in one's language too far? Do you know what 'linguistic chauvinism' means?

Ans: Yes, it is surely possible to carry pride in one's language too far if one is fond of one's own language at the cost of others. Indifference towards other languages is not healthy for any democracy like India. When the sense of belonging to one's own language crosses the thin line between 'pride' and 'proud', it becomes linguistic chauvinism. If people feel good about their languages and traditions, they must have tolerance for other languages too. Everybody has the right to follow the religion as well as speak the language as per his/her desire. In fact, it is disparaging to distort the names of communities, for example, Bongs for Bengalis, Gujju for Gujaratis, etc.

Working with Words

1. English is a language that contains words from many other languages. This inclusiveness is one of the reasons it is now a world language, for example Petite - French

Kindergarten - German 

Capital - Latin 

Democracy - Greek 

Bazaar - Hindi

Find out the origin of the following words.

Tycoon, tulip, logo, bandicoot, barbecue, veranda, robot, zero, ski, trek


Tycoon - Japanese 

Tulip - French 

Logo – Greek

Bandicoot - Telugu 

Barbecue - Spanish 

Veranda - Hindi 

Robot - Czech

Zero - Italian 

Ski - Norwegian 

Trek – Dutch.

2. Notice the underlined words in these sentences and tick the option that best explains their meanings.

(a) “What a thunderclap these words were to me!”

The words were

(i) Loud and clear.

(ii) Startling and unexpected.

(iii) Pleasant and welcome.

Ans: (ii) startling and unexpected.

(b) “When a people are enslaved, as long as they hold fast to their language it is as if they had the key to their prison.” 

It is as if they have the key to the prison as long as they

(i) Do not lose their language.

(ii) Are attached to their language.

(iii) Quickly learn the conqueror's language.

Ans: (ii) Are attached to their language.

(c) Don't go so fast, you will get to your school in plenty of time. You will get to your school

(i) Very late.

(ii) Too early.

(iii) Early enough.

Ans: (iii) Early enough.

(d) I never saw him look so tall. M. Hamel 

(a) Had grown physically taller.

(b) Seemed very confident.

(c) Stood on the chair.

Ans: (b) Seemed very confident.

Noticing Form

1. Read this sentence.

M. Hamel had said that he would question us on participles.

In the sentence above, the verb form “had said” in the first part is used to indicate an “earlier past.” The whole story is narrated in the past. M. Hamel's “saying” happened earlier than the events in this story.

This form of the verb is called the past perfect.

Pick out five sentences from the story with this form of the verb and say why this form has been used.

Ans: In the following sentences, two activities of the past, occurring at two different points of time in the past, are indicated. 

The one that happens earlier takes the “had”+ past form of the verb (V3), while the one that follows it takes the simple past form of the verb (V2).

Sentences in past perfect form (Reason/ Explanation)

(i) For the last two years all our bad news has come from there.

Reason: The 'coming' of bad news happened earlier than the bulletin in the story.

(ii) Hauser had brought an old primer.

Reason: The event of 'bringing' happened earlier than Franz noticed it.

(iii) That was what they had put up at the town hall!

Reason: The 'putting up' of the bulletin happened earlier. Now it is recalled.

(iv) they had not gone to school more.

Reason: The action of not going* happened much earlier.

(v) the hopvine that he had planted himself twined about the windows to the roof.

Reason: The 'planting' of hop vine happened earlier than its twining about the windows.


1. Write a notice for your school bulletin board. Your notice could be an announcement of a forthcoming event, or a requirement to be fulfilled, or a rule to be followed.


                Future Vision Public School, Delhi                     


July 2, 2021

                                     SPORTS DAY

The school has decided to celebrate its Annual Sports Day on 30 July 2021. All those who are interested in participating in various sports activities are requested to give their names to their respective class teachers latest by 6 July 2021 in the following format:


Class & Section:

Activity 1:

Activity 2:

Activity 3:

A copy of the list of sports activities has been sent to your class teacher. Please note that no student is allowed to participate in more than three sports activities.

Rishi Sinha 

Head Boy

2. Write a paragraph of about 100 words arguing for or against having to study three languages at school.

Ans: For: Learning new languages at an early age helps a child to build up a more cosmopolitan view. The child is more accepting towards new cultures, people and excited to learn and know about them. It also provides sufficient international exposure to the child and would aid his communication if they plan to travel abroad. It also opens doors to new job opportunities for them.

Against: It burdens kids at an incredibly early age. If they live in a country where the language is not frequently spoken, they forget it after some time. Kids don't have a natural inclination towards learning languages and should be taught to kids who demand it. No clear use of learning so many languages if you are not going to use it.


3. Have you ever changed your opinion about someone or something that you had earlier liked or disliked? Narrate what led you to change your mind.

Ans: As a child, I was never fond of vegetables. I would always skip them in a meal and would throw tantrums if I was forced to eat them. In recent years I started consuming vegetables, especially green leafy and seasonal vegetables since my health wasn't in the best possible shape. But my opinion changed when I saw the effect it had on my body and overall health. My skin felt better and my body was healthier. I started happily eating vegetables after that to take better care of myself.

Things To Do

1. Find out about the following (You may go to the internet, interview people, consult reference books, or visit a library.)

(a) Linguistic human rights

Ans: The human and civil rights that concern the individual and collective right to choose are called linguistic human rights. These rights provide an individual to choose the language for communication, in public or private.

(b) Constitutional guarantees for linguistic minorities in India

Ans: India is a secular and democratic country. Various articles in the Constitution help to support this. Article 350 A asks every state to provide primary education in mother tongue and special offers for linguistic minorities under Article 350 B

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo the Last Lesson PDF

The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo the Last Lesson PDF comes with an array of questions. You will find solutions to various short answer type and long answer type questions and also, get to learn about new words which will increase your vocabulary. Value-based questions and ‘think and learn’ type of questions are also solved in this PDF. By following these NCERT Solutions you will be able to enhance your writing skills as well. For better guidance, download the PDF from the official website of Vedantu by simply registering your name.

What is the Importance of Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 1 the Last Lesson?

  • The story 'The Last Lesson' portrays the sudden realization of the people about the significance of their native language.

  • This realization occurs when Alsace and Lorraine are captured by the Prussians, leading to an order from Berlin that mandates the teaching and learning of only German in the schools.

  • The atmosphere in the school changed from chaos to silence, and the students began to display sincerity towards their French lessons.

  • The silence in the classroom was broken only by the sound of pens scratching across paper.

  • Villagers from the locality started attending French classes with the students, indicating their regret and sadness.

  • The French teacher, M. Hamel, had to leave his old school due to the order from Berlin.

  • In his last lesson, M. Hamel instilled devotion and sincerity among his pupils.

  • The students regretted not paying attention to their mother tongue and depriving it of its due credit for so long.

  • The story emphasizes that humans tend to realize the importance of something only when they no longer possess it.

  • The story highlights the significance of one's native language in providing identity, liberty, and dignity.

Chapter wise NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo


Chapter wise NCERT Class 12 English Flamingo Poem Solutions

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo the Last Lesson

The very first chapter of Class 12 English, Flamingo is a beautiful story about a boy attending the last class of his mother tongue at school. The boy is attending his last lesson of French, a subject which he long avoided but knowing it is the last class, suddenly he wanted to learn more about the language. The story is depicted in the backdrop of the Franco-Prussian War and revolves around the theme of patriotism, the importance of native language as well as freedom of speech.

All these aspects are thoroughly explained in the PDF solution of Ch 1 English Class 12. Students who are looking for reliable study material for their English board examination preparation can seek guidance in the NCERT solutions English Flamingo Chapter 1 provided by Vedantu.

Chapter 1 Class 12 English Flamingo (Under the Section Think As you Read)

Question 1,2,3: 

The first three short answer type questions tell about the chapter Franz was expected to prepare, what unusual thing he noticed that day, and what Franz saw on the bulletin board, at his school, respectively.

Question 1,2 (Under the Section Think As you Read)

Question 1 deals with the changes that were caused by the order from Berlin. Students get a picture of M. Hamel in his best Sunday dress and also others’ reactions to the order.

Question 2 wonderfully describes how the feelings of Franz towards French have changed with the order that from now on, they all will have to learn German, at school.

Question 1,2 (Understanding the Text)

Here, students learn one of the finest sayings of M. Hamel that for enslaved people, the language is the key out of the prison. People started to realize the importance of their native language as well.

Question 2 depicts a school boy’s simple query of what the impact of a new language, German, on the people of Alsace and Lorraine, will be.

Question 1,2,3 (Talking About the Text)

Question 1 demands students to think about the text and place their understanding of various similar circumstances. Students get to know how years of practice of enslaving people have taken away their mother tongue and motherland in all over the world. 

Questions 2 and 3 elaborate on the concept of linguistic minority and linguistic chauvinism, respectively.

Apart from this, the exercise consists of several other questions, such as:

  • Etymological source of various words

  • Tick the correct option

  • Grammar

  • Writing (Notice, Paragraph, and others)

Chapter 1 Class 12 English Flamingo: Marks Weightage


      Theoretical Paper

Internal Assessment




The marking scheme and marks weightage of Ch 1 English Class 12 follows a strict pattern like other topics. Therefore, students are required to prepare every part of this chapter to score better in their 12th board exams.

Benefits of NCERT solutions Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 1

There are various benefits of NCERT solutions Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 1, and some are as follows.

  • As these solutions are prepared by the most trusted and expert teachers, students can have a proper understanding of all the key points of this chapter.

  • Since every answer is prepared by following the latest CBSE guidelines, students can rely upon these solutions for their exam preparation.

  • The simple and direct approach of the solutions enables students to answer the questions on their own, in a precise way.

If you are preparing for your 12th board examinations and struggling to grasp the theme, analysis, and message of the very first chapter of your lesson, you can turn to Vedantu as your exam guide. The NCERT Solutions Class 12 English Flamingo Chapter 1 has been the preferred study guide of students for several years, and you can download them for free.

FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Chapter 1 - The Last Lesson

1. What are the Advantages of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English Flamingo ‘The Last Lesson’?

Students who are willing to fetch more marks in English can completely rely on these NCERT solutions for English. The solutions are designed keeping in mind the latest CBSE guidelines. Also, these NCERT solutions come with an elaborate explanation of the given topic. Several questions such as short answer type and long answer type questions, tick the correct options, words with their etymological sources are stated elaborately. The writing section gives students an extensive idea about the style of writing that is important for the exam and how to write them. The solutions provide the best help before Class 12 English board examinations.

2. How will I Benefit from Chapter 1 of English Class 12 NCERT Solutions?

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English consists of all important types of questions, exercises, new words, and phrases. The section covering the writing includes paragraphs, notice writing, as well as the writing of the survey. The short answer and long answer type questions play a great part in laying the foundation of The Last Lesson. The intricate details and underlying theme of patriotism, and the importance of native language are thoroughly described in the solution. You can download the PDF for free from Vedantu by just registering your name and contact details.

3. What is the Underlying Concept of the Last Lesson?

The first chapter of Class 12 English, The Last Lesson is written in the backdrop of the Franco-Prussian War between 1870-1871, where France was conquered by Prussia under the leadership of Bismarck. The story revolves around a boy named Franz, and the last day of his French teacher M. Hamel.

Till that day Franz had a strong dislike towards the subject, but suddenly an order from the Germans changed everything. From that day onwards, they would have German language classes at school. Therefore, M. Hamel can not continue to teach French. All the native people suddenly felt uprooted due to the new order, so did little Franz. They started to realize the importance of the mother tongue, and a sense of patriotism started to evolve among them.

4. What is the theme of the last lesson in Class 12?

The central theme of the last lesson in Class 12 is linguistic chauvinism. The themes of freedom of language, patriotism, and love for one’s mother tongue are also predominant in this chapter. The author shows the oppression by the majority in this story. The people residing in the region in Alsace and Lorraine are forced to learn German, and they are the victims of aggressive linguistic chauvinism. This means the idea that one’s language is more important while disregarding other languages. 

5. What is the summary of the last lesson?

The story highlights the importance of education and how important it is to learn your language. Franz is a French boy who stays in the region of Alsace and Lorraine in France which was overpowered by Germans. He and people in his language did not learn their mother tongue and regretted it. They realize that they have been defeated by the Germans due to illiteracy. Franz understands that a language comes naturally to a person. 

6. Is the last lesson real?

The last lesson is not real. However, the historical events are true and are used for reference to put light on the theme of the story. The districts of Alsace-Lorraine were under Prussian control until World War I. This story is set in 1870 when Bismarck’s army stormed the regions of Alsace Loraine and held them under their control. The Germans forced the French schools to teach German. Hence, the French living in that area did not know their language. 

7. What is the first chapter of English Class 12?

The first chapter of English Class 12 is the ‘last lesson’. It is a story of a boy named Franz, who is attending the last class in his mother tongue, which is French. He has been avoiding this subject for a long time, but knowing that it is his last class, he develops an interest in this language. This story highlights the necessity of knowing your mother tongue and freedom of speech. 

8. Why should you refer to Vedantu’s NCERT Class 12 English Solutions?

Vedantu’s NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English contains answers to all the questions in your English book. You can download these free of cost from the official website of Vedantu ( These can also be downloaded using the Vedantu app. The answers are framed by experts and aim at helping you understand the chapters in an easy way. It includes all the important points from your chapter and will help you to score high in your exams. All the complex words are elaborated and will enhance your vocabulary. You will learn to frame answers in the right way.