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Principles of Prevention

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Prevention of Diseases - An Introduction

MVSAT 2024

Diseases are caused by tiny microscopic organisms that exist in animals or the surrounding environment and if we come into contact with them, these can be the cause of infections and often deadly diseases. We can be vigilant and take some basic precautions to stay fit and lower the risk of catching and spreading any kind of infectious disease. Certain steps can be taken to fight these diseases. After the pandemic, the importance of immunity is understood by all, so we should follow the recommended immunizations for children, adults, and pets.


Take booster shots from time to time when required. If the doctor prescribes antibiotics, always follow the instructions, and never ever self-medicate or buy over-the-counter medications of your own free will. Nowadays, super specialists are there for every ailment, like ophthalmologists for eyes, orthopaedics for bones, ENT for ear nose throat infections, and so on. Maintaining a proper hygienic environment and eating well-prepared home food is absolutely essential. Safe drinking water is a must for all, and safe sex practices should be propagated right from an early age.

What are Disease-Specific Means of Prevention?

The most specific means of prevention of diseases are vaccines which can be used to fight back measles, polio, whooping cough, diphtheria, etc. Through immunizations, a person's immunity is boosted to protect them from specific diseases. It helps reduce mortality rates and when a person recovers completely, they develop resistance to that disease. The government has implemented public health programs throughout our lives, so specifically, public hygiene and immunizations are ways to prevent diseases.

How We Can Prevent Diseases?

Overall hygiene should be maintained outside our homes and inside too, cleanliness is the only way to kill microbes and prevent the breeding of mosquitoes which are hugely responsible for spreading vector-borne diseases. The provision of safe drinking water for all prevents water-borne diseases. Our immune system fights back certain infectious diseases and for that administering vaccines becomes ever so important.

Prevention of Infectious Diseases

Coughing into tissue and proper disposal of it, sterilising the bed linen, separately preparing meals and making sure to serve in separate utensils, caregivers should use protective gear such as goggles, face shield, gloves, and mask. While administering injections, doctors and nurses should be wearing protective gear, proper hand washing and use alcohol-based sanitiser to reduce the spread of infectious diseases.

What do we Need to Prevent and Treat Illness?

Prevention of illnesses can be done through proper sanitation, proper nutrition, adequate exercise, vaccinations, and usage of face masks when necessary. Treatments can be according to the severity of the disease like oral or intravenous medicine, therapy, or surgery. Samples are taken which reveal the microbe causing the disease and it helps in treatment. Blood, urine, stool, throat, and nasal swabs and if needed, spinal tap are the tests done in order to treat the illness effectively.

Concept of Prevention of Disease

Prevention is always better than cure so goes the saying. Focused actions on preventing, eradicating, or minimising the impact of the disease can be described as the concept behind the prevention of diseases. They can be:

Primary: Preventive measures to employ beforehand like immunizations etc.

Secondary: Tests, screening, door to door medications in order to identify and detect eventually prevent a disease from becoming a pandemic.

Difference Between Prevention and Control

Prevention means the measures employed to prevent the occurrence of a disease, it stops the rapid progression in the nascent stage and prevents further fatal consequences. Controlling the spread can be easily done by adopting safety measures like hygiene, consistent hand washing, and not spreading germs.

Ways to Prevent Diseases

Acquiring healthy habits to stop the spread of infectious diseases. Safe preparations of food especially meat and dairy, washing of vegetables and fruits, cleanliness of kitchen surfaces, the whole house should be disinfected regularly, not sharing used articles, sneezing and coughing into a tissue and then disposing of it properly, vaccinations on time.

Interesting Fact

An Interesting fact is that a disease which lasts for three months or longer may get worse affecting the functioning and behaviour of the body.

Key Features of Principles of Prevention

  • Public health experts should inform and educate the people and apply quarantine measures in order to control the spread of disease.

  • Discussion on ways to prevent diseases, precautions to be taken, and healthy habits need to be undertaken.

  • Some diseases can be communicable, others we may get by eating contaminated food or water or just by being exposed to the environment where the contagion is inhabiting.

  • Each disease has its own set of symptoms like the onset of fever, fatigue, cough and cold, etc.

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FAQs on Principles of Prevention

1. Describe Covid 19, its repercussions on the world and its protocol.

Coronavirus (Covid 19) is an infectious disease caused by SaRS -CoV -2 virus. It affects different people in different ways, the first known case was identified in Wuhan (China) in December 2019. It started with fever, cough, and loss of taste and smell but quickly graduated to fatal and resulted in a shortage of hospital beds, medications shortage, and unavailability of oxygen. Protocol to be followed is distancing, quarantining, ventilation, covering cough attacks and sneezing, and usage of face mask and sanitiser frequently.

2. What does subclinical infection mean?

Disease can occur from infection by means of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans and worms but when health is not altered that is the immunity of the patient is not compromised and normal functioning is resumed that is called subclinical infection. For example, a virus which causes measles is injected into the body in a weakened state through vaccines which results in the body producing immunity to measles without actually materialising as a disease and having any adverse effects on the body.

3. What are chronic diseases?

Disease is an abnormal condition prevailing in a body which usually gets resolved on its own with medical intervention. A disease which lasts for three months or longer or may get worse affecting the functioning and behaviour of a body is known as a chronic disease. They tend to occur and cannot be controlled or cured. With medication, therapy, and support, they can be managed but cannot be cured. For example, Cancer, diabetes, heart disease etc. are usually persistent and long-lasting. 


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