Scientific Names of Plants and Animals

Nomenclature is the identity of organisms. Without a proper nomenclature system, it is difficult to recognize where the organisms belong in the ecosystem. Nomenclature makes it possible to remember a particular organism by one or two words. Carl Linnaeus, a Swedish Botanist gave the Binomial Nomenclature system to name plants and animals. Binomial Nomenclature is a Latin word meaning two naming system.


Thus, as per Binomial Nomenclature, plants and animals were named, depending upon two factors.

i) Species

ii) Genus


Before the Binomial Nomenclature system, plants and animals had very long Latin names. It made it difficult to remember them. So, Linnaeus’s System carefully eased the complication and made the names shorter. This system is universally accepted, creates no confusion as each organism gets a unique name, and easier to remember and understand.


Rules of Writing a Scientific Name

While writing the scientific name there are certain rules to be followed-

  1. While writing a scientific name, the genus of the organism comes first followed by the species.

For example - Genus                   Homo

                      Species                 sapiens

  1. While typing a scientific name, it is always typed in Italics and if it is handwritten, it is always underlined.

  2. The Genus name is Capitalized followed by the species name which is in lower case.

Although this protocol was established in 1700, it is periodically updated by Taxonomists.


A Trinomial nomenclature is also in use these days, to give very specific names to an organism and according to this system, the Genus and species is followed by the subspecies.


Example- i) Indian Crow- Common Name

              Corvus Splendens Splendens- Scientific Name

 

              ii) Humans- Indian Name

                Homo sapiens sapiens- Scientific Name


Binomial Nomenclature of Plants

Plant names generally end with a plural adjective at the end which is in Latin “aceae”. The adjective used for nomenclature describes at least, the genus or the characteristics of the family to which the particular plant belongs.


Example- Spinach- Spinacia oleracea


Genus- Latin noun is used to name a genus of the plants. It indicates the medicinal property or the characteristic of the plant. Genus is also written, taking into consideration the name of the person who discovered it and name of God.


Example- Artemisia absinthium is named after the Greek Goddess- Artemis which is the name for wormwood.


Species- A characteristic specific to the particular species decides the species name of the plant. It also comes from the native place of plant’s origin, or after a person discovering it. Species name also comes from another genus that has similar characteristics in that particular plant species’.


Scientific Names of Common Plants

 

Common Name of Plants

Scientific Name of Plants

Apple

Pyrus malus

Bamboo

Bamboosa aridinarifolia

Brinjal

Solanum melongena

Banana

Musa paradisicum

Black Gram

Palsoes mungo

Banyan

Ficus benghalensis

Barley

Hordeum vulgare

Black Pepper

Piper nigrum

Carrot

Daucas carota

Cashew nut

Anacardium occidentale

Clove

Syzygium aromaticum

Coriander

Coriandrum sativum

Cucumber

Cucumis sativas

Curry leaf

Murraya koenigii

Capsicum

Capsicum fruitscence

Chiku

Achras sapota

Cotton

Gossypium herbaceum

Dragon fruit

Hylocereus undatus

Finger millet

Eleusine coracana

Green Gram

Phaseolus audicus

Guava

Psidium guava

Ginger

Zingiber officinale

Garlic

Allium sativum

Jack fruit

Artocarpus integra

Jowar

Sorghum Vulgare

Kadamb

Anthocephalus indicus

Lemon

Citrus Limonium

Maize

Zea mays

Mango

Mangifera indica

Neem

Azadirachta indica

Onion

Allium cepa

Orange

Citrus aurantium

Pea

Pisum sativum

Papaya

Carica papaya

Potato

Solanum tuberosum

Pomegranate

Punica granatum

Peacock Flower (Gulmohar)

Delonix regia rafin

Purple orchid tree (Kachnar)

Bauhinia purpurea

Peepal

Ficus religiosa Linn.

Pineapple

Ananus sativus

Radish

Raphanus sativus

Red maple

Acer rubrum

Rice

Oryza sativa

Rose

Rosa

Soya bean

Glycine max

Silver Oak

Grevillea robusta

Sandalwood

Santalum album

Spinach

Lactuca sativa

Sunflower

Helianthus annuus

Turmeric

Curcuma longa

Tobacco

Nicotina tobaccum

Tulsi

Ocimum sanctum

Teak

Tectona grandis Linn.

Tamarind tree

Tamarindus indica

Tomato

Lycopersicon esculentum

Watermelon

Citrullus vulgaris

Lettuce

Lactuca sativa

Mint

Mentha arvensis


Binomial Nomenclature for Animals

The naming system for animals is similar to the naming system of plants. While writing a scientific name, the genus comes first followed by the species. Except, Scientific name of plants cannot have similar two parts of the binomial name. While in Animals, this is allowed. Example- Scientific name of American Bison is- Bison bison.

 

Scientific Names of Common Animals 


Common Name of Animals

Scientific Name of Animals

Dog

Canis lupus

Domestic dog

Canis lupus familiaris

Cat

Felis catus

Horse

Equus ferus caballus

Sheep

Ovis aries

Domestic Pig

Sus scrofa domesticus

Goat

Capra aegagrus hircus

Donkey

Equus africanus asinus

Dromedary Camel

Camelus dromedaries

Bactrian Camel

Camelus bactrianus

Water Buffalo

Bubalus bubalis

Cow

Bos Taurus

Indian Elephant

Elephas maximus

Tiger

Panthera tigris

Lion

Felis leo

Fowl

Gallus gallus domesticus

Blackbuck

Antilope cervicapra

Bulbul

Molpastes cafer

Cheetah

Acinonyx jubatus

Red fox

 

Vulpes Vulpes

Gharial

Gavialis gangeticus

Hippopotamus

Hippopotamus amphibius

House wall Lizard

Hemidactylus flaviviridis

Indian Cobra

 

Naja naja

King cobra

Ophiophagus hannah

Rat snake

Ptyas mucosa


Scientific Names of Extinct Animals


Passenger pigeon

Ectopistes migratorius

Tasmanian tiger

Thylacinus cynocephalus

Moa

Dinornithiformes

T-Rex

Tyrannosaurus rex

Dolphin

Lipotes vexillifer

Tasmanian Tiger

Thylacinus cynocephalus

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How to Write a Scientific Name?

Genus is written first followed by the scientific name while writing a scientific name. The first letter of the genus is capitalized and the first letter of species or subspecies is written in small letters. Scientific names are always written in Italics dialect and underlined when written by hand.

2. What is the Importance of Binomial Nomenclature?

Binomial Nomenclature replaces the big inconvenient names of organisms with easy to remember, two-word names. The binomial name in itself is sufficient to identify the genus and species and hence the common characteristic of the organism by its name.

3. What are the Drawbacks of Binomial Nomenclature?

Binomial Names are hard to learn for layman. They are tedious and spelled mostly in Latin form. Also, they are very long and usually unfamiliar.