Vector-Borne Diseases

What is a Vector-Borne Disease?

Vector-borne diseases are the illness brought about by the vectors. A vector is a carrier of the causative microbe for different diseases, for example, mosquitoes, ticks and fleas. The proliferation paces of vectors are impacted by climate and weather. Such diseases are across the board and found all through the world. In excess of 700,000 patients bite the dust of vector-borne diseases. The significant vector-borne diseases establish about 17% of the infectious diseases on the planet. The most unfortunate populaces of the tropical and the sub-tropical districts are profoundly influenced by such diseases. Malaria is maybe the most popular vector-borne disease on the planet. Let us take a look that is a vector-borne disease and the types of vectors responsible for the vector-borne diseases.


What are Vectors?

Vectors are living creatures that can transmit infectious pathogens between humans, or from animals to humans. A good number of these vectors are known to be bloodsucking insects that tend to ingest sickness creating microorganisms during a blood meal from a tainted host which can either be human or animal and later transmit it into another host after the pathogen has recreated. Regularly, when a vector gets infectious, they are equipped for transmitting the pathogen for an amazing remainder during each ensuing bite/blood meal.


Types of Disease - Vectors

  1. Mosquitoes

  2. Flies such as sand flies and dark flies 

  3. Bugs 

  4. Ticks 

  5. Snails conveying parasites


Potential Places Where Disease Vectors Exist

  1. Utensils and ridges containing stale water, and swimming pools.

  2. Places where rainwater pontoon, (for example, toys at gardens).

  3. Relinquished places and apparatuses.

  4. Revealed water tanks at the kitchen and restroom.

  5. Ridges containing stale water.

  6. Rat tunnels and dull places.

  7. Stale water depleted by the forced air system and helpless ventilation.

  8. Stale water at rooftops.

  9. Swimming pools, ponds and marshes, particularly in agrarian places.

  10. Animal pens.

  11. Unclean beds and swimming places may be a decent situation for bugs.


List of Vector - Borne Diseases and Their Vectors

Vectors 

Diseases 

Disease - Causing Organisms

Mosquitoes

Chikungunya

Dengue

Zika fever

Yellow fever

Filariasis

Rift Valley fever

Malaria

West Nile fever

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)

Dengue virus (DENV)

Zika virus

Yellow fever virus

Filarioidea

Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV)

Plasmodium

West Nile Virus

Tsetse Flies

African trypanosomiasis

Trypanosoma brucei

Lice

Typhus

Louse-borne relapsing fever

Rickettsia prowazekii

Borrelia recurrentis

Sandflies

Leishmaniasis

Phlebotomus fever

Leishmania

Phlebovirus

Ticks

Lyme disease

Tick-borne encephalitis

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

Relapsing fever

Rickettsial disease

Tularaemia

Borrelia burgdorferi

Flavivirus Tick-borne encephalitis virus Ortho Nairovirus

Borrelia

Rickettsia

Francisella tularensis


Safety Measures for Protection Against Disease-Vectors

  1. Battling the insects that transmit such diseases, just as the places where their larvae exist, by utilizing appropriate insecticides.

  2. Filling ponds and marshes, and taking out wastes, and making a point not to let them heap up.

  3. Putting on long-sleeved wears, and covering legs at places where insects exist, and utilizing insect repellants.

  4. Utilizing nets at entryways and windows to forestall the passageway of insects.

  5. Utilizing mosquito nets when resting outside.

  6. Covering water tanks well.

  7. Evacuating things that could presumably give a place to water boating, for example, old tires, ridges and unused apparatuses by huge.

  8. While remaining for long outside, make a point to cover the latrine lid, siphon lid, water seepage openings and gutters.

  9. Changing water at ridges like clockwork, and cleaning them from inside.

  10. Disposing of water at water seepage channels at rooftops and nurseries.

  11. Changing water at animals' drinking utensils like clockwork.

  12. Abstaining from venturing out to the nations/places stricken by vector-borne diseases, and making a point to ingest the essential preventive medications and immunizations when voyaging. Such medications and immunizations are, for instance, for yellow fever and malaria.

  13. Focusing on the cleanliness of animals and animal pens.

  14. Making a point to wipe water well in the wake of being in contact with water at places stricken by diseases.

  15. Abstaining from swimming at ponds or stale water, and maintaining a strategic distance from discharge in it.

  16. Battling the snails transmitting the infectious type of Bilharzia.

  17. Keeping up close to home hygiene continually and utilizing clean water for drinking or washing.

  18. Disposing of human waste away from water resources.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. How Serious are Vector-Borne Diseases?

Ans. Vector-borne diseases are known to be the most serious, since they are erratic, not to mention the way that it is hard to forestall or control it, given that infection may happen considerably after treatment and the sickness borne insects are profoundly established in the earth where they win. 


The earnestness of vectors dwells in their capacity to transmit the illness at a huge scope in a shorter time than different infectious diseases that require human-to-human contact. Well beyond, vectors can transmit diseases among various living creatures (mice, rats, monkeys, birds, dogs, and so on.) and humans, in this manner offering a path to the predominance of different microorganisms activating genuine diseases. Notwithstanding that, treatment of such diseases is rather troublesome, and basically requires the disposal of the vector.

2. What is the Main Difference Between a Pathogen and a Vector?

Ans. The difference between a pathogen and a vector is as follows:


A pathogen is an operator that causes ailment, for example, a virus, bacterium, protozoan, or parasite. 


A vector is a living being, frequently an arthropod, that conveys a pathogen to its host. 


Along these lines, for instance, for malaria, the pathogen is a protozoan called Plasmodium, and the vector is a mosquito called Anopheles. For plague, the pathogen is a type of a bacterium known as Yersinia pestis and the vector is known to be rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis.