A deficiency disease can be defined as a disease that is caused by the lack of essential nutrients or dietary elements such as vitamins and minerals in the human body. A well-balanced diet is critical to a person's overall health. Any dietary imbalance could result in an excess or insufficient consumption of particular nutrients. A deficiency disease can result from a lack of a certain nutrient. Deficiency disease is a disease caused by a lack of essential dietary elements and especially a vitamin or mineral. A balanced diet focuses on providing the body with all of the nutrients it requires. It comprises macronutrients like protein, carbohydrates, and fat along with micronutrients like vitamins and minerals. Hence, by eating a balanced diet, deficiency diseases can be prevented.
Deficiency disease examples: Vitamin B1 deficiency causes beriberi, lack of iron in the body can lead to anaemia.
It is a condition of a long-term lack of vital amines in our body. If there is less intake of vitamins then the condition is called primary deficiency and if the reason behind deficiency is malabsorption of vitamins due to a disorder, it is called a secondary deficiency. Vitamin deficiency can result in diseases such as beriberi and pellagra. Vitamin deficiency is still a problem all over the world. They are typically clinically unnoticed unless they are severe, but even modest deficiency can have serious implications. Vitamin deficits affect people of all ages, and they frequently coexist with mineral deficiencies (zinc, iron, and iodine). Because of their relatively high demands for these compounds and susceptibilities to their absence, pregnant and lactating women, as well as young children, are the most vulnerable to vitamin deficiencies. Infectious disease, death, anaemia, death during pregnancy or childbirth, and impaired mental and physical development are among them. Vitamin deficiency has consequences because of the biochemical roles they perform.
Minerals are nutrients that the human body needs in order to function properly. A mineral deficiency occurs when the body doesn’t obtain or absorb the required amount of a mineral. It can happen slowly over time for various reasons. These can be an increased need for minerals in the body, a lack of minerals in the diet, etc. The deficiency of minerals can lead to several health problems. For example, deficiency of iron can result in anaemia. The human body requires different amounts of each mineral to stay healthy. Specific requirements are mentioned in daily allotment (RDA).
The RDA is the average quantity that satisfies the nutritional needs of 97 percent of healthy persons. They can be found in foods, mineral supplements, and food products enriched with additional minerals.
A deficiency occurs over time and can be caused by a number of circumstances. A greater requirement for the mineral, a scarcity of the mineral in the diet, or difficulty absorbing the mineral through food are some of the most common explanations.
Mineral shortages can lead to brittle bones, fatigue, and a compromised immune system, among other problems.
Vitamins and minerals are nutrients that our bodies require in order to develop and function properly. A, C, D, E, and K, as well as the B vitamins thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxal (B6), cobalamin (B12), biotin, and folate/folic acid, are all known vitamins. Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, iron, zinc, iodine, sulphur, cobalt, copper, fluoride, manganese, and selenium are all vital minerals for good health. Deficiency diseases can be categorised into two types.
Vitamin deficiency diseases
Mineral deficiency diseases
The water-soluble vitamins include ascorbic acid (vitamin C), thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine), folacin, vitamin B12, biotin, and pantothenic acid.
Vitamins A, D, E, and K are known as fat-soluble vitamins because they are soluble in organic solvents and absorb and transport in the same way that fats do.
Mineral examples are Sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, manganese copper, Iodine, chromium.
1. How Can We Prevent Deficiency Diseases?
Vitamin and mineral deficiency diseases can be easily prevented if we maintain a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle. This can easily be achieved if we follow some simple steps:
Include vitamin and mineral-rich food in the diet
Eat simple and wholesome food like soybeans, pulses etc.
Vitamin in food denatures if the food is overcooked, so avoid prolonged cooking.
Include mineral and vitamin supplements in the diet
Food fortification, which is a process of adding micronutrients to food, is a health policy that is followed in countries where a large chunk of the population is malnourished. It is carried out to prevent deficiency diseases on a large scale in these areas.
Genetically engineered products are also being used to prevent deficiency diseases.
2. Name Diseases Caused By the Deficiency of Vitamin C
The deficiency of vitamin C results in a rare disease called Scurvy. The symptoms are anaemia, exhaustion, and spontaneous bleeding, debility, pain in limbs, and swelling in some parts of the body. Scurvy occurs when plasma concentration falls below 0.2 mg/dL. It can be treated with oral or intravenous Vitamin C supplements. Other diseases of vitamin C deficiency include gum disease and connective tissue problems.
3. List 10 Nutritional Deficiency Diseases
Nutritional Deficiency Diseases: Diseases caused by the deficiency of vitamins and minerals