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CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25 (Updated)

Last updated date: 23rd May 2024
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CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus - Free PDF Download

Vedantu has developed the content for CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) Class 12 Biology syllabus for the academic year 2024-25, aligning it with the latest NCERT guidelines. The new syllabus provides students with a comprehensive understanding of various biological concepts and topics. It emphasizes the importance of a structured approach to studying biology effectively.

The NCERT Class 12 Biology syllabus covers a wide range of essential areas, including cell structure and function, genetics, ecology, biotechnology, and human physiology. In addition to theoretical knowledge, the syllabus also emphasises the significance of practical applications. It includes practical sessions that allow students to gain hands-on experience and develop essential laboratory skills. The NCERT Class 12 biology practical syllabus focuses on experiments, identification of specimens, and data analysis, providing students with a holistic learning experience.

To access the detailed NCERT syllabus for Class 12 Biology PDF, you can download the PDF version from Vedantu. The syllabus provides valuable insights into the examination pattern, question paper design, and internal assessment structure.

The updation in new curriculum includes:

New topics: The new curriculum includes two new topics: Plant Physiology and Biotechnology and its Applications.

Changes to existing topics: The new curriculum also includes changes to a number of existing topics, such as Cellular Respiration and Evolution.

Emphasis on experiential learning: The new curriculum places a greater emphasis on experiential learning, with a focus on hands-on activities and projects.

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Competitive Exams after 12th Science

CBSE Class 12 Biology Revised Syllabus 2024-25


Unit Name






Genetics and Evolution 



Biology and Human Welfare 



Biotechnology and its Applications 



Ecology and Environment




Unit-VI: Reproduction

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction  

Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis -spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health  

Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit-VII: Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Heredity and Variation: Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans - thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance 

Morphology of different parts of flowering plants: root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seed. Description of family Solanaceae

Chapter- 7: Evolution 

Origin of life; biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidences); Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit-VIII: Biology and Human Welfare 

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases 

Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-10:  Microbes in Human Welfare 

Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation andmicrobes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit-IX: Biotechnology and its Applications  

Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes

Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology). 

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Applications

Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents. 

Unit-X:  Ecology and Environment 

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations 

Population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Aboitic Factors, Responses to Abioitic Factors, Adaptations)

Chapter-14: Ecosystem 

Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles)

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation

Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

CBSE Class 12 Study Materials

CBSE Class 12 NCERT Solutions

CBSE Class 12 Important Questions

CBSE Class 12 NCERT Exemplar Solutions

CBSE Class 12 Sample Papers

CBSE Class 12 Previous Year Question Papers


The updated CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus for the academic year 2024-25, developed by Vedantu in alignment with the NCERT guidelines, provides students with a comprehensive and structured approach to studying biology. The syllabus covers a wide range of topics and concepts, emphasising both theoretical understanding and practical applications. By following the syllabus guidelines, students can gain a deep understanding of biology and develop essential laboratory skills. Access to the NCERT syllabus and its valuable insights into the examination pattern and question paper design further enhances exam preparation. With dedicated effort and systematic study, students can excel in the CBSE Class 12 Biology Board Exam and achieve success in their academic journey.

FAQs on CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25 (Updated)

1. Is the syllabus given on the site accurate?

Yes, the given syllabus on the site is accurate. Everything in Vedantu is accurate and precise as per the requirements. You will never have to doubt Vedantu. It’s the site which will give you satisfaction and a trustworthy feeling. 

It’s the best place to come whenever students are facing difficulties while studying. It will be always available for you to clear your doubts easily and accurately. Vedantu is the best companion during online studies. It provides materials in PDF format so that people can easily download and study them offline as well. 

2. Are Vedantu’s study materials beneficial?

Yes, Vedantu’s study material is beneficial. It gives the best study material by using easy languages which will make any average student a topper. Vedantu is a website where you will find the best quality of teachers with content. It allows you to have interactive classes as well. 

All you need to do is join the Vedantu family and bring the best out of your studies. As in 12-grade, it’s a very vital year for everyone and Vedantu shows the correct approach to study and to write answers will help in scoring higher marks.

3. What are the tips for CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus Exams (Term 1& 2) 2024-25?

Students must use some basic yet efficient tips and methods when studying for the CBSE Class 12th exam in order to succeed. When it comes to Biology, it is a subject that will help you get excellent results if you take it seriously and give it your hundred percent. Experts at Vedantu provide a few last minute tips to ace your examinations. Examine some of the most effective CBSE 12th Biology preparation tips.

  • Complete the CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus 2024 as soon as possible to provide ample revision time.

  • Students should consult the CBSE class 12 timetable 2024 to organize their studies.

  • Rather than just memorizing Biology theories, attempt to comprehend their meaning and make personal notes. These notes will aid you in last-minute revision.

  • Students must study CBSE Class 12 exam papers 2024 after completing the CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024. This will assist them in understanding the exam pattern, marking method, and key themes.

  • Allow plenty of time for rewriting and don't dismiss any uncertainties. Remove them as soon as possible. In the event of confusion, seek assistance from others. Also, do not be concerned about the board; instead, give it your everything in order to achieve a good CBSE class 12 result 2024.

4. Where can I download CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus (Term 1& 2) 2024-25?

You can download the full syllabus of the CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus (Term 1& 2) 2024-25 on the website of Vedantu. Not just this, Vedantu's website provides all of the free CBSE Class 12 Biology study materials, example papers, and mock exams. Vedantu's website contains important questions for CBSE class 12 Biology test preparation. You can practice with the previous year's example papers and question papers. Practice exams can help you get a feel for the exam environment and question styles. Examining them will give you an advantage and help you comprehend the problems better. You'll be able to recognise a variety of paper patterns and manage your time effectively. Vedantu also offers live online sessions with experts who can assist you in resolving issues. The best aspect is that all of the sample papers with solutions and extra study aids are available for free download.

5. What is the benefit of the reduced syllabus of the CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus (Term 1& 2) 2024-25?

The CBSE Class 12 Biology exam will be held independently and will be based on the CBSE Class 11 Syllabus. The Board will conduct examinations based on the CBSE Class 12 Reduced Syllabus at the conclusion of each term, according to the Special Scheme of Assessment for Class 10 and 12 for the present academic year 2024-25.

The Class 12 Biology CBSE 2024-25 shortened syllabus in Term 1 and Term 2 gives students the favourable  chance of succeeding in their studies. Students can begin studying for the exam using the most recent CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus. On CBSE's official website, you may find a term-by-term shortened syllabus for Class 12 Biology CBSE. This page will give you a full curriculum for all topics in Class 12 CBSE, as well as a unit-by-unit distribution of marks, as well as chapters and concepts within each unit. The CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2024-25 must be well understood by all students in the 12th Standard.

6. What is the New Assessment Scheme for Board Exams in CBSE Class 12 Biology (Term I and Term II)?

  1. If the pandemic situation improves, the CBSE Board will hold Term I and Term II exams in schools and centers. The theory scores will be evenly divided throughout both tests.

  2. If the pandemic increases and students are required to complete Term I examinations online or offline from their homes, but Term II exams may be held at centers, the CBSE Board will reduce the weightage of Term I exams and enhance the weightage of Term II exams for the final result declaration.

  3. If it's the other way around, and Term I examinations are held in school but Term II exams aren't, and students take them online or offline, the results will be based on their performance on the Term I MCQ-based exam and internal assessments. To provide year-end results for candidates, the weightage of marks from the Board's Term I test will be raised.

  4. If neither of the tests can be held at schools or centers, the Board will compute results using internal assessments, practicals, and theory marks from students' home-based Term I and II exams to assure the validity and reliability of the evaluation.

7. What is the importance of the CBSE Class 12 Biology syllabus?

The CBSE class 12 Biology syllabus 2024-25 provides thorough information on the major sections and units of each subject. Students must ensure that they understand the fundamentals of each chapter and idea. The points are listed below:

  1. The Biology syllabus outlines the full course structure, including the weighting of marks for each unit and duration.

  2. The CBSE curriculum defines the question paper format, allowing students to become familiar with the types of questions that will be asked on each topic.

  3. Exam papers are written in accordance with the CBSE board's class 12 curriculum.

  4. The CBSE Biology syllabus assists students in effectively preparing for the Class 12 board.

  5. The CBSE Biology syllabus is designed to benefit both students and teachers.

  6. It would also be beneficial to have a better comprehension of key chapters. If you take engineering and medical admission examinations like JEE (Main and Advanced), NEET, BITSAT, and others, it will help.