Medicine is defined as art, the science or practice of treatment, diagnosis, and the prevention of diseases. Medicine includes a variety of health care practices that involve the maintenance and restoration of the health of a patient by treatment and the prevention of the illness. Biomedical sciences, research, and medical technology are included in contemporary medicines which helps in diagnosis, treatment, and preventing injury and diseases through surgeries but therapies such as ionizing radiation, psychotherapy, and others could also help in treating a patient.
Medicine has been practiced for ages and many civilizations had adapted medicine to treat the ones who were ill or injured in a battle. During prehistoric times the medicine was considered as an art or the area of skill or knowledge which was frequently connected to the philosophical or the religious belief of the local culture. For example, whenever soldiers were injured after the battle, herbs from the plants were used to heal the injured soldiers, and also if a person was ill a medicine man would apply sacred herbs and say prayers for the healing. As centuries passed there was an expansion in modern science which resulted in most medicine becoming a combination of art and science.
Organization of Health Service
The health services in every country are organized in such a way that it ensures that families, communities, and individuals obtain the maximum benefit from the current technology and knowledge which is available for the restoration of health. Health care organizations consist of companies that provide offerings of nurses, doctors, pharmacists, and other cynical authorities. The main purpose of healthcare organizations is to provide good services that would be helpful for the people at a lower price. A healthcare organization is an organization of people, resources, and institutions that deliver health care services to meet the needs of the target population.
The government and the other authorities play an important role in providing proper health care services to the majority of the population. To provide the same they have to undertake many steps which include-
To provide good services to maximum people in need, they must obtain a lot of information on the extent, size, and urgency of the needs. Accurate information is required to help people as without information it would be very difficult to plan.
The needs and requirements must then be revised and evaluated against the resources available in terms of the three m’s which are manpower, money, and the material required to solve the problem.
The next step is to evaluate the resources and then every country then needs to determine an objective and make a plan that would help in solving the problem of the people.
The final step is to build a program that would help in helping the people in need. An effective program should be made as it helps in an accurate assessment of the situation which helps in saving time, money and avoiding confusion.
Level of the Health Care
Level of care or assisted living generally refers to how much assistance a person needs with the Activities of daily living as well as in the management of health when he or she is admitted into a hospital. Activities of daily life (ADLs) include activities such as taking a bath, assisting with using the restroom or eating. The level of healthcare is a pyramidal structure that is divided into levels based on the needs and emergency of the patient. The level of health care is divided into the categories of primary care, secondary care, tertiary care, and quaternary care. Each level is based on the complexity of the medical cases treated as well as the skills and specialties of the professionals who provide treatment.
1. Primary Care: Primary care is the first and the most common stop for symptoms and other medical concerns. Most people are very familiar with primary care as many patients get treated by the primary care doctors when they see new concerns or the symptoms of common cold, the flu, and other viral or bacterial diseases. Primary care is also taken by many patients for acute medical problems such as broken bones, skin rashes, or muscle pain. Doctors, nurses, or physician assistants come under the category of primary care providers(PCP). Any medical professional who is specialized in taking care of a particular group of people also comes under primary care providers(PCP).
2. Secondary Care: Secondary care simply refers to the care provider by a specialist. It simply means that the patient will be taken care of by someone who is an expert in the health-related issue a patient is suffering from. Specialists focus on the specific system of the body or the specific condition or the disease. For example, an Oncologist will have experience in treating cancer and will have knowledge about different types of cancer and similarly, a cardiologist will have experience in treating patients who have problems with heart-related diseases. When the primary care providers cannot help a patient with the problem, they refer the patient to secondary care. There is a problem of coordination that is developed in secondary care. When a patient develops initial symptoms he or she is referred to a specialist that can help to resolve the initial problem of the patient but if the symptoms change the patient will be again mentioned to another specialist. When a patient is referring to more than one specialist, the treatment of the problem cannot be fully done as there is a miscommunication between the specialist. This problem could be avoided when the specialists work together with the primary health care team to ensure that everyone knows what the other is recommending.
3. Tertiary Care: One the patient’s health worsens by the time he or she is hospitalized and will need a higher level of specialty care at the hospital and at that time he or she is referred to tertiary care. The tertiary level is very expensive as it requires highly specialized equipment and expertise. It includes many complex treatments such as bypass surgery, plastic surgery, hemodialysis, and so on.
4. Quaternary Care: An extension of tertiary care is Quaternary care. It is considered to be even more specific and advanced as it requires extra care of the person. As it is so specific, not every hospital provides quaternary care. Quaternary care is provided by the specialist hospitals that have the equipment, staff that are specialized in helping the patient solve his or her problem. Highly uncommon and specialized surgeries come under quaternary care.
Cost of Health Care
For patients, the cost of healthcare is the amount of money they have to pay for the health care services that are provided by the hospitals. The cost of healthcare is rapidly increasing in many developed countries such as the United States of America or Sweden. The trend of exponential increase in the cost of healthcare that the patient has to pay for his or her treatment has been a major concern for many developed and developing countries. Paying more money to get treated by the hospitals is a major problem for many middle class as the amount spent on health care does not guarantee the full recovery of the patient.
Cost of Healthcare in India
India is a developing country and it has a very low average income per person with many people living at or below the poverty level. Though the health care system has improved in India, there is a rise in many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and other cardiovascular diseases which have resulted in many people spending their hard-earned money on health care. An unhealthy lifestyle is considered to be the major reason for the increase in illness in the life of many people. The cost of medical treatment in India is very high and it usually varies from one city to another. For the treatment of various illnesses, there are specialized hospitals in the country that have very qualified professionals who charge more than the patient could afford. Certain medical procedures in India can cost a common man up to lakhs of rupees. For example, the dialysis of the patient’s kidney can cost up to Rs 1,000 per session. The same could be said for treatment for cardiovascular diseases. cataract eye surgery. The sad part is the amount of money invested in treating a person does not guarantee the problem would be solved or eliminated completely.
About 67% of Indians spend their earnings on medicine alone. Fees of the doctor, laboratory test, Hospitalization. are the other payments that an average Indian has to pay both at the public and private health facilities and at the chemist.
Other Branches of Medicine
Most of the doctors have extra special expertise in one type of medicine or another. The fact is that there are many medical specialties and subspecialties. The names pointed out below are some of the most common branches of medicines and the most common specialty doctors.
1. Pediatrics: Paediatricians are the doctors who provide healthcare for the diagnosis and the treatment of acute and chronic diseases which affect children and infants and teenagers. The field of Pediatrics has many sub-specialties such as neurology, nephrology, oncology, and so on. Pediatricians also work as family doctors and take care of the emotional and physical health of the children from birth to the teenage years. Counseling on children health and advising parents about the do’s and don'ts in parenting is also taken care of by the Paediatricians
2. Cardiology: Cardiology is the field that deals with the treatment of diseases related to the heart. The doctor who has gained advanced knowledge in the field of cardiology is known as the cardiologist. The field of cardiology provides treatment for heart failure, hereditary heart diseases, and so on. The few other areas which the cardiologist handles are electrophysiology, electrocardiograms, and others.
3. Oncology: Oncology is the field that deals with the treatment and assessment of cancer. Providing proper treatment to a cancer patient is important and therefore there are types of oncologists such as the surgical, radiation, and the medical oncologists who have to coordinate together to make sure that a patient is guided properly and the best treatment is a provider to him or her.
4. Neurology: Neurology is the branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. As the field is cast, it is divided into three subspecialties which are child neurology, clinical neurophysiology, and pain medicines. Since there are various factors that could affect the nervous system of the person, to deal with it different subspecialties have evolved in this field such as a specialist in cerebrovascular medicines, strokes, movement disorders, and so on.
5. Dermatology: It is the branch of medicine that deals with the study and treatment of the skin, hair, scalp, and nails and focuses on diagnosing infections or other conditions in this area. A dermatologist is well trained to diagnose and treat skin cancer, moles, and tumors of the skin. The branch of dermatology is divided into sub-specialties such as Immuno-dermatology, Paediatric dermatology, cosmetic dermatology, and so on.
6. Anatomy: It is the study of the physical structure of the body. Biochemistry is the study of chemical components and how they affect the body. Biomechanics is a field of medicine that deals with the structure of the biological system of the body. Biophysics is another field in medicine that applies the concepts of physics and mathematics to model and understand the workings of biological systems.
Definition of Medical Specialist
Definition of a Medical specialist could be as simple as a person who is an expert in certain fields of medicines. Medical specialists treat either a specific part of the body such as the lower back or the brain or are specialized in certain diseases such as cancer and other cardiovascular diseases. Dentist, Cardiologist. allergist, anesthesiologist, dermatologist, gynecologist, neurologist. Oncologists, pediatricians, and physical therapists, ophthalmologists, psychiatrists, and radiologists are some of the most common types of specialists.
Define Modern Medicine
Modern medicine is also called allopathic medicine. Modern medicine involves the use of drugs and surgeries to help and cure the disease or solve the problem of the patient. Acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine, other traditional medicines, and many more can be included in the Alternative and complementary types of medicines.
The goals of modern medicine are to help in the prevention of diseases, promote the health of every individual in society and improve the quality of life of individuals or groups.