Urban Livelihoods Class 6 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 9 - PDF Download
Class 6 Civics Chapter 9 explains what urban livelihood means to young minds. They will learn different terms related to urban settlements and livelihood. There are 27 cities and more than 5000 towns in India. More than 14 million people reside in Kolkata, one of the busiest and most populated cities in the world. Imagine daily life and rush in cities like this? How these big cities behave like a single unit of settlement. If you follow the Urban Livelihood Class 6 Notes developed by the teachers of Vedantu, you will find out how an urban city behaves.
Access Class 6 Political Science - Civics Chapter 9 – Urban Livelihoods
In India, there are 27 big cities and thousands of towns where millions of people reside. There are big cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai, and many tier-II cities like Chandigarh, Pune and Hyderabad. All these cities are bustling day and night. People here work in MNCs, small offices, and factories. Some people are self-employed, like small businessmen and shop owners, and street vendors. All of them have different kinds of employment and earning opportunities. Let’s look at them one by one in Chapter 9 of CBSE Class 6Social Science book.
1. Working on the Streets
i. Whenever we step out of the house, we see the street buzzing with activities. An account of which is given below—
a. Many people are seen selling different items such as vegetables, fruits, flowers, and newspapers in their respective stalls set along the roadside.
b. Some vendors roam around the city with their carts selling their items like hairpins, clips, plastic bottles, vegetables, etc.
c. Some work as cobblers and barbers settled on the roadside with their tools and materials waiting for customers.
d. There are also people serving as rickshaw pullers.
These above-mentioned activities make the streets seem very busy, full of activities. It can be elaborated as follows:
ii. In a survey, it was found that 12 out of every 100 people in the city work on the street.
iii. These are the people who are not employed by anyone and therefore have to plan and organise everything on their own. They decide where to buy things, how much to buy, where to sell those and how to set up the shop.
iv. Most street shops/stalls are temporary structures – some just put a few sheets on the poles to display their products, others spread a sheet on the road to keep the products, while some might have a cart.
v. As these are not proper selling spaces, these sellers on the streets are often asked to remove their setups by the police.
vi. Street hawkers have no security and are not even allowed to enter some parts of the city.
vii. Vendors, selling food on the street, usually prepare food at home with the help of their family members.
viii. Till recently, street vendoring was seen as an obstruction to traffic on the road but now it has been recognised as a rightful source of livelihood.
ix. The government had earlier banned street vendors but it is now reconsidering this law and trying to make it easier for vendors to sell without obstructing traffic.
x. Proper hawking zones are being defined and committees are being set up to include them in such decisions.
2. The Story of Bachchu Manjhi – A Cycle-Rickshaw Puller
i. This is the story of a mason who left his village and came to the city in search of work as his income in the village was not enough to feed his family.
ii. Many years ago, when he had just come to the city, he bought an old cycle rickshaw in installments.
iii. Now his daily routine is as follows:
a. He goes out in the morning, pulls the rickshaw, and transports customers from place to place.
b. He rides till $8:30$ in the evening in a range of about $6$ kms.
c. He gets Rs. $5$ to $10$ for one trip but on days when he is sick, he earns nothing.
d. He earns Rs. $80 - 100$ a day and spends about around Rs. $50 - 60$ on food and rent. Rest he sends to his family in the village.
iv. His wife manages with this money, and also works on the field every once in a while.
3. In the Market
i. In the urban market, a lot of people in cities own shops an account of which is given below—
a. These are shops selling a variety of items such as sweets, footwear, utensils, electronics, etc.
b. These are owned by independent shop owners who manage everything on their own and employ other people as helpers.
c. These shops are different from hawkers and vendors because they are permanent and are given licenses by municipal corporations to do business legally.
d. They remain closed on days decided by the municipal corporation of their area.
ii. There are also big showrooms spread over more than one floor, where products are beautifully showcased for different categories of customers.
4. The Story of Harpreet and Vandana: Businesspersons
i. Harpreet is a dress designer who opened a showroom with Vandana after completing college.
ii. Vandana shares that as people now prefer to buy readymade garments, it is important to have an attractive display.
iii. The duo does the following things to run their business:
a. They buy materials from various parts of the country and even from foreign countries.
b. To bring in new customers, they often advertise their showroom in newspapers, cinema theatres and radio channels.
iv. As of now, the showroom space is rented but they soon plan to buy it.
v. The showroom has picked up in recent times and the couple made some good profits, which they used to buy a car and an apartment nearby.
5. In the Factory-Workshop Area
i. In India, there are several areas which are known as labour chowks where semi-skilled daily wage labourers gather every day in search of work. There are thousands of casual workers in every city who carry their tools to these chowks and wait for people to offer them some work for the day.
ii. In factory areas, you can find many workshops, where several people work as skilled workers.
iii. One such worker is Nirmala whose lifestyle can be elaborated as follows:
a. Nirmala works as a tailor in a garment factory that makes summer apparel for people living in the USA, Germany, and the Netherlands.
b. She works long hours from December to April and is paid Rs $80$ for $8$ hours each day.
c. If she works late, she is paid an additional amount Rs.$40$.
d. During other months, Nirmala is out of work and has to look for other ways to earn a living.
iv. From Nirmala’s story, the following facts are concluded about works in factories:
a. In factories, people generally work for long hours, especially during high demand or when the factory has a huge order to fulfill.
b. The day usually begins at around $9$ am and ends at $10$ pm. If needed, they work over the weekend as well. Sometimes, their shifts are as long as $12$ hours.
c. People are employed when there is more demand and once it is fulfilled, the staff is reduced and the people become out of work or unemployed.
d. Such workers have no job security and work at low wages, for long hours with little to no benefits.
e. They are not even allowed to complain about their wages, working conditions or else they are fired from the job.
6. In the Office Area
i. People who work in proper offices are mostly regular, permanent employees.
ii. They have a steady monthly salary, which they can expect to continue for several months or years.
iii. This kind of job comes with job security and several work benefits such as:
a. Savings for old age: A part of the salary is kept in a fund with the government. After employees retire, they get this money to spend their old age nicely.
b. Holidays: People working in offices get national and state holidays apart from some paid holidays as annual leave.
c. Medical facilities for a family: Companies often pay medical expenses of their employees up to a certain amount. They also get paid medical leave when they fall sick or enjoy maternity leave when they give birth to a baby.
iv. One such employee is Sudha whose job and lifestyle can be elaborated as follows—
a. She works as a marketing manager in a biscuits factory and manages $50$ salespersons.
b. She keeps track of their progress, and discusses the issues faced by them.
c. She gets a regular salary and can expect her job to last for a long time. She also gets several benefits, like the ones mentioned above.
Important Questions and Answers
1. Write a note on the living conditions of workers who come to the labour chowk.
Ans: Labourers who come to labour chowk are low skilled workers and. They wait here everyday in hope to find daily work.
a. They usually live and sleep on the streets.
b. Sometimes, they get a bed at a night shelter by the municipal corporation at a charge of Rs. 6 per night.
c. Local tea and pan shops lend them money in times of need.
d. Also, they do not have enough space to keep their tools and materials and often keep those inside these roadside tea stalls and pan shops for safekeeping.
e. Overall, the living conditions of these workers are quite depressing.
2. Explain the condition of people working on the streets?
Ans: It is easy to spot people selling a variety of things like vegetables, fruits, flowers, etc. or serving as a barber or cobbler on the street. The conditions of these people can be elaborated as follows—
a. These are poor people who work very hard to make ends meet. They have to plan and organise everything on their own (from buying things to setting up their shop).
b. They somehow manage to buy items or make something at home to sell and earn a living.
c. Street hawkers have no job security and were considered a nuisance on the streets up till recently.
Some organisations worked hard to acknowledge their right to livelihood and made the government rethink the laws related to street hawkers. To uphold their rights and make their voice heard, some committees involve them in decision-making regarding hawkers and street vendors.
3. Why did Bachchu Manjhi come to the city?
Ans: Bachchu Manjhi who works in the city as a rickshaw puller came here because of the following reasons—
a. He was in dire need of new work.
b. He worked as a mason in the village but did not get masonry work regularly.
c. When he did get work, the wages were not satisfactory.
d. Such low income made it difficult for him to survive and feed a family of four.
4. What are the key differences between a regular job and a casual job?
Ans: The differences between permanent and casual jobs are as follows—
a. Job security is there.
a. Job security is not there.
b. Work is available all year round.
b. Work may not be available all year round.
c. A fixed amount of salary is received every month.
c. There may not be fixed payments.
d. Work is done in regular fixed working hours.
d. There are no fixed working hours and a worker may also have to work overtime.
e. Permanent job workers receive paid holidays and leaves.
e. Casual job workers are not given any payment if they take leaves or holidays.
f. There are additional benefits like old age savings, medical facilities, etc.
f. There are no such additional benefits.
g. Examples of permanent job workers include civil service employees, corporate sector employees, etc.
g. Examples of casual job workers include workers in a factory, masons, etc.
5. What are the benefits of a permanent job?
Ans: People in permanent jobs enjoy the following benefits:
a. Regular salary: Unlike casual workers, they receive a fixed amount of salary at the end of every month.
b. Old-age savings: In the form of a provident fund, a part of an individual’s salary is kept with the government. These are the lifetime savings and it is obtained along with interests after retirement.
c. Holidays: A permanent employee is also eligible to have off from work on Sundays as well as on national holidays. Apart from these declared holidays, he/she can also take leave on a certain number of days which are part of her annual leave.
d. Medical facilities: Government employees are also paid a certain amount of medical expenses of their own as well as their family members. Besides these, they also get paid leaves on account of ill health.
e. Job security: Unlike casual workers, they are the permanent workers of the government. They have no chances of getting fired and hence enjoy job security.
6. How do the hawkers manage their work?
Ans: Hawkers on the street manage their work in the following manner:
a. They manage everything on their own.
b. They plan and organise their work, figure out how much to purchase and at what price, how to sell and make profits and
c. They also arrange their own shop with great effort when they do not own any physical space. Their shops are usually temporary structures. The hawkers use boards or papers kept on discarded boxes or maybe hung up canvas sheets hung up on two poles. Some of them simply spread a sheet on the road and put their products on display.
d. A few of the lucky hawkers can have their own carts.
Class 6 Social Science - Civics Chapter 9 Urban Livelihoods Notes
Urban Livelihood: Class 6 CBSE Civics Chapter 9 Summary
The 6th chapter of this book will introduce you to the different parts of a busy urban livelihood. You will learn where people live, go to work, and find their daily necessities. An urban settlement is perfectly planned and constructed by the city planners so that everyone living in it can enjoy all the perks and facilities without breaking a sweat. This chapter will discuss the different segments of urban society and explain how they serve the purposes.
You will discover that nearly 12% of the people living in a city work on the streets. Their livelihood depends on what they do. They can own a small business, repair things, sell commodities, or work for other businesses. Most of the time, they are either self-employed or do not have a permanent solution related to employment. They are considered as the vendors and are mainly located in the hawking zones.
Showrooms and Market Areas
The markets are the places where you will find permanent or temporary shops where people can find their daily needs such as groceries, stationery, footwear, utensils, electronic goods, medicines, etc. Businesspersons are those who own these shops and cater to the daily needs of the population. The volume of their businesses depends on the amount of investment. They can be a small shop owner or a big businessman who owns showrooms or reputed brands. If you check the Urban Livelihood Class 6 Project, you will find a plethora of examples to follow.
The showrooms in the markets employ people. These places have workers and supervisors serving the business owner. For doing a business, one needs a proper license issued by the municipal corporation of a city. There are different kinds of shops in the market. A market is generally located close to or within an urban settlement. The location helps people to get their daily needs right on time. From medicines to clinics, groceries to stationeries, almost everything necessary is available in an urban market.
The factory area, on the other hand, is a specific zone far away from the populated areas in an urban settlement. Generally, a factory gets a license for manufacturing products from the respective regulatory authority. Small factories can exist in urban settlements. Only those factories that have pollution and waste management concerns will be settled in distant locations. Small units such as bakery, tailoring, and other enterprises can be found close to the population.
The workshop areas, on the other hand, lies away from the populated areas. This is where the labourers visit every day to find work. employees don’t have to look for work daily. These labourers can also be fond of lifting loads, constructing roads, emptying or loading carrier vehicles, digging pipelines, building houses, etc. This section of the population relies on physical labour. They have to work in unhealthy conditions to meet both ends. Their payments are also very nominal and limited.
This section of the urban livelihood describes the people who work in an office and give mental labour to meet both ends. They have a permanent employment solution and get a monthly remuneration in exchange for their daily services. If you follow the Urban Livelihood Class 6 Notes, you will learn that they spend on their families, education, and save money to afford an asset in the future. They also invest in different financial channels to earn money and enjoy benefits in the future.
They get holidays specified by a national calendar. The national holidays and weekends are enjoyed in different ways. They either visit a shopping complex, watch movies with friends and families, or rest at home. Their medical healthcare requirements are taken care of by the employer following certain protocols mandated by the government. They get different kinds of leaves granted by the employer on certain conditions.
As you can see, the Urban Livelihood Class 6 Project explains how the urban livelihood of different people varies according to their profession. Even though these people are living in the same city, a striking difference can be witnessed in their lifestyles.
FAQs on Urban Livelihoods Class 6 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 9 [Free PDF Download]
1. Why do we need workers or labourers?
A society cannot run without workers or labourers. All the heavy physical works are done by this section of the urban population. Without their assistance, it will become hard for many businesses to run. Eventually, the entire societal and economical system will crumble.
2. Why do we need office workers?
Office workers are mental labourers. They use their skills to serve an employer and accomplish something meaningful as a team. This results in the development of urban settlements. Their expenses also determine the livelihood of other sections.
3. What is TMS in Chapter 9 of Political Science of Class 6?
TMS stands for Tawa Matsya Sangh which is a working fishermen’s federation that supports and fights for the Satpura forest dwellers of Madhya Pradesh. Tawa Dam was constructed in this region from 1958 to 1978 that destroyed a large agricultural area which was the livelihood of the farmers living in the same area. The control of the area rested in hands of the private industrialists when the government gave them the fishing rights of Tawa reservoir and they exploited the dwelling farmers. This led to the rise of the fishermen's federation TMS. TMS planned successful campaigns and fought hard for their rights. As a result, in 1996 the government handed back the fishing rights to villagers.
4. Where can I get important questions for Chapter 9?
You can refer to the Important Questions for Class 7 Chapter 9 “Struggle for Equality” available at Vedantu’s website. This pdf consists of important questions that are mentioned in the prescribed textbook. These questions are included after observation and analysis of the previous years’ papers. The current syllabus and marking scheme have also been kept in mind while curating these important questions and their solutions. You can download Vedantu’s learning app as well to access the important questions.
5. What topics are covered in Chapter 9 “Struggle for Equality”?
Chapter 9 “Struggle for Equality” is an important chapter for exams but is also one of the fundamental rights of citizens of India. Thus, learning about the concept of equality is necessary for students. Political Science Class 6 briefly introduces this chapter to students. The prescribed textbook includes some of the basic yet prominent topics such as Struggles for Equality, Tawa Matsya Sangh, and the Indian Constitution as a living document. Students must learn these topics thoroughly.
6. What do you mean by equality as explained in Chapter 9 of Class 6?
In history, it has been recorded that people are discriminated against on various grounds. Equality is the solution to this concept. For Class 6, equality can be defined as the concept of treating people equally despite the differences that may exist between individuals. No person should be discriminated against based on gender, caste, colour, race, or nationality. Each person should be treated with equal respect and consideration on the common grounds of humanity.
7. How many questions are there in Chapter 9 of Class 6 in Political Science?
NCERT has an exercise at the end of each chapter and the same pattern follows for Chapter 9 struggle for equality. There are a total of five questions at the end of the chapter which covers almost all prominent concepts of the chapter. But you can always practise more questions through Vedantu’s website that provides practise papers and mock test papers free of cost. They provide you with all the possible questions that can be asked from the chapter struggle for equality.