What is Government? Class 6 Notes Political Science (Civics) Chapter 3 - PDF Download
The newspaper often incorporates articles with headlines like ‘Key Expectations from Modi Government after years of Turbulence- Union Budget 2020’. Have such articles ever left you wondering what the role of the government is and what it even is in the first place? Well, in this chapter, students will learn elaborately about what is a government and how it works to run the country. Further, you’ll also learn about the types of governments- democracies and monarchies. What is government class 6 notes will give you brief insights into everything you need to know about the government, and it’s working.
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Access Class 6 Social Science Chapter 3 - What Is a Government? Notes
We always hear the term ‘government.’ But do we know what it means? Is it a manner to rule over the people? Is it a means to bind people by rule of law? Is it a means to protect and defend the country?
Definition of a Government
Here is a big shocker - even big philosophers and political analysts differ in their definition of the government.
John Locke had said once that government is a complex machinery that protects the ‘natural rights’ - the right to life, property and to live freely - of the people.
Montesquieu on the other hand was not a believer of natural rights. He thought that when human beings lived without a society without forming any group, they felt unsafe and remained timid. As they formed society, they became fearless because now they were in a big group. Once the societies and the groups became fearless, there was a chance of war among the groups and even among themselves within the group. This led to the formation of the government so that human beings could then be protected and law and order could prevail.
Rousseau’s idea of government is also quite progressive. According to him, it is true that natural rights of human beings should not be revoked by anyone. But the machinery upon which people have entrusted the responsibility of protecting their rights is fraud & harmful. According to him, the government should be made up of all the people living in the nation-state.
So, what then can be the definition of a government in a modern world? It is a mixture of all above philosophies. A government is there to perform its basic duties necessary to make the nation keep moving forward. It functions as the gatekeeper of the rights of the people. However, in modern world, it is not practically possible for all the people to take part in the governance directly. So what they do is, they elect people to power who, on their behalf, would then later form the government.
The Jobs of the Government
Generally speaking, the primary job of a government is to run the country. Now there are various aspects to running a country.
The government also looks after the development of the country. It decides where to build roads, hospitals or a school. It makes sure that the facilities like electricity, water etc reach the maximum number of people in the country.
The government takes care of the economy of the country. It controls the inflation (excessive price rise) and it makes sure that the factories, manufacturing units & industries remain healthy so that the country advances financially. It is also responsible for controlling the banking system of the country.
The government, with the help of armed forces, makes sure that the borders of the nation are protected from any foreign attacks. It also maintains amicable relationships with its neighbouring countries through diplomacy and other policies.
The government in a welfare state then makes sure that the people of the country have food to eat. It makes special arrangements for poor people. In times of disasters, the government helps the people with necessary aids.
The government also has the judicial arm - the court to resolve quarrels between the citizens of the country.
Levels of the Government
A country is a huge area. Millions of people live in a country. It is not possible for a centralised government to govern, protect and develop all the parts of the huge country. To solve this problem, leaders have come up with different levels of the government.
We have various state governments to look after affairs of the states, to protect and defend the people living in the states. Then there are focused local governments which emphasises on developing a particular area of the state & helping the people of that are. The duty of central government is to develop, govern, and protect the whole country in a general manner.
This kind of decentralised form of government is known the federal government. In India, we also see such a type of government.
India has states like Haryana, Kerala, Maharashtra etc. These states also have their respective state governments. These states also consist of municipalities and Panchayats - these are the local form of governments.
How Does Government Make Sure That Its Rules Are Followed?
So, government generally formulates rules to manage the economy, build roads, stop people from encroaching on the properties of others. But why do people listen to governments?
People listen to governments because the government’s legislative arm creates laws so that there remains an order and peace in society. For example, as your book says, every person who wants to drive a motor vehicle has to first obtain driver’s licence. Without driver’s licence, it is illegal to drive a vehicle and it is punishable. This rule is also enforced with the help of laws concerning motor vehicles.
There are certain laws that prevent others from entering the property of others without permission. The citizens, themselves can use such laws to protect themselves.
Types of Governments
There are many types of governments. The most popular type of government that we see around us is the democratic government. In a democratic government, people elect the leaders who would govern the nation on their behalf. The merit of democratic government is that the people have a say in the way the government functions.
In the olden days, there was monarchy where the King had the sovereign power. People would also not elect the King. Generally, the rule was dynastic in nature. Most of time, King had little regard for the desires and expectations of the people.
Again, in many countries, we see dictatorial governments where one man or one government has every power. That man or that government stifles freedom of the people & does everything to make sure that the power remains with the man or the government.
India Is a Democracy
India is also a democracy. The people of India take part in the election where they choose people who would then represent them in the assembly. This kind of democracy is known as representative democracy because here, instead of directly participating in the governance, the people choose their representatives who would do that work.
But India was not democracy from beginning. Before the British came, India was ruled by Kings and dynasties. When the British came, India became the subject of British rule. It is the sacrifice of the freedom fighters that has helped India gain democracy. In India any adult - be it, man or woman - has the right to vote. This is known as the Universal Adult Franchise - a major criterion for any country to call itself democratic
Class 6 Social Science Civics Chapter 3 - What Is Government Notes
What is Government Class 6 Notes Overview
A Government is of prime importance and the very pillar of decision-making in a country. A government plays a vital role in making crucial decisions of a company and even establishing different facilities for the citizens of the country. For instance, the government looks into elements like building schools and roads, improving the supply of electricity, lowering the prices of onions and other essential household items when they get expensive, and so on. Furthermore, the government also needs to take necessary actions on distinguishing social issues and similar elements like regulating and administering railway and postal services. Along with this, the government has a wide range of roles and responsibilities. You will learn more about each of these roles in this chapter.
Levels of Government
Now that you are familiar with what a government is and what its fundamental role is, you’ll learn in brief about different levels of government. So, if you’re wondering how the government organizes itself to suit all these roles, worry not because this section of the chapter has got you covered. The government primarily comprises about three levels. These three levels include- local, state, and national levels. The local level includes a town locality or your village as a whole. The state-level includes an entire state like Maharashtra or Karnataka. Lastly, the national level includes the entire country. These levels of the government are thus distributed with essential roles and responsibilities for the smooth running of the country.
Laws and The Government
This section of the chapter deals with different laws associated with the government. The government, in general, is the law-making body of a country. It thus makes specific laws that the citizens of the country must abide by. Along with making relevant decisions, the government can even enforce them. For instance, every individual driving a motor vehicle must ensure getting a license. If caught without a license, they can be fined a hefty amount of money and even jailed under rare circumstances. Similarly, there is a wide range of such laws that people need to adhere to. They may experience unfortunate punishments if they do not follow these laws. Students will learn more about all the laws they must follow and what the government may do if you do not follow them.
Types of Government
While you’ve learned that the government acts as the decision-making body of the country, have you ever wondered who gives it the authority for doing so? Well, this depends on the type of government your country comprises. In a democratic country, the citizens of the country themselves give the government this authority through elections. In these elections, people vote for a particular party or persons, thereby electing them. These elected officials then work towards regulating the country by forming a government. However, in a monarchy government, the monarch, also known as the queen or king, has the sole power of making vital decisions of the country, along with running the government.
India is a democratic country. Due to this, the law-making body of the country is elected by the people of the country itself. After eventful struggles of attaining independence, India has finally become a democratic country. Several countries like India have faced similar challenges and have become a democracy. The very ideology of a democracy is that people have the right to elect their leaders. Thus, the country is ruled by the person that is elected in the majority. In this section, students will learn thoroughly about what a democracy is and how a democratic government works to regulate the country.
Votes for Women
The last section of this government deals with the votes for women. The government does not willingly partake in power anywhere throughout the world. Around the USA and Europe, women and the poor struggle with several discriminations. They have to fight for their rights, for basic rights to participate in the government. This section talks about distinguishing problems that women face while trying to participate in the government. Furthermore, it also gives us different examples of how women fought for their rights to vote. Students can now refer to what is government class 6 notes to learn more meticulously about this section.
FAQs on What is Government? Class 6 Notes CBSE Political Science Chapter 3 [Free PDF Download]
1. Write in brief about the suffrage movement and what is accomplished.
Suffrage, in a nutshell, means the very right to vote. In the earlier days, women and the poor living in the USA underwent several struggles as they did not have the fundamental right to vote. They further fought for these rights and thus established a movement known as the suffrage movement. They then gathered in abundance during World War I. After a lot of fighting and struggling, these women finally succeeded in the year 1920 in the USA. On the other hand, women in the UK succeeded in the year 1928.
2. Write about your understanding of the word ‘government’.
Government plays a fundamental role as the decision-making body of a country. A government is of different types- monarchy and democracy. A few of the most prime roles of a government include-
Making decisions concerning the construction of roads and similar such infrastructure
Making decisions about distinguishing social welfare programs
Looking into offering safe and necessary health facilities.
Securing the boundaries and even establishing friendly relations with different countries across the world
Making crucial decisions on essential commodities and goods like onions and petrol
3. What are the types of government?
The different types of government are:
Democratic Government - In a democratic government, the power is bestowed upon the government by the people. This is achieved by the process of election, where the people of the country elect the candidate of their choice and put them in power. Once elected, the government has to plan and explain its actions to the people to win their trust.
Monarchy - In a monarchy, the people in power have the authority to make decisions without any need to take the opinion of the people that they rule. Moreover, they don't have to explain and defend their actions to the people whom they rule.
4. What are the functions of a government?
The government's duties involve planning and implementing laws on its citizens, which every citizen is to follow, to have an organized society. The government has the power to enforce the decisions that it makes on its people. For instance, if someone is caught driving a vehicle without a licence, they will be fined or jailed. The government also must maintain good and peaceful relations with the other countries, while also protecting its boundaries. In case of any natural disaster, the government must provide first aid to its citizens and look after their needs.
5. What are the three levels of government Class 6?
The government usually works at different levels -
The Local Level - The local level represents the villages, towns or locality.
The State Level - It represents the entire state.
The National Level - It is important that the student goes through the chapter thoroughly and marks all the important areas to understand the functions and laws that each level imposes on society. This will help them to remember all the important points. Getting a good understanding of the chapter will help the student secure good grades in the exam.
6. What is the work of the police? Who is in charge of all the police stations in a district?
The main works of the police include,
To maintain and ensure that law and order are followed in any given area.
In case of thefts, accidents, fights etc, it is the duty of the police to register them and look into it on time.
To investigate and collect information on the cases that might take place in their area.
The person who is in charge of all the police stations in a district are often referred to as the Senior Superintendent of Police or the Deputy Commissioner of Police.
7. What is the Hindu Succession Amendment Act, 2005?
The Hindu Succession Amendment Act had sought to bring the women at par with their male counterparts. As it was seen in history, women had no right to demand their right in the property or family’s agricultural land, because after the demise of the father, the property was usually divided among the sons. With the help of this act, this situation is reversed, and the daughters and wife have the right to claim the rights of their fathers or husband. Therefore, this law can be also seen to boost the independent status of the women in a land where they are always treated as the subordinate to man.