Soil Erosion

What is Soil Erosion?

Soil Erosion is often defined because the situation when the soil particles are loosened or washed away within the oceans, rivers, valleys, streams, or lands distant. This erosion takes place and also becomes worse due to human activities like deforestation and agriculture. erosion is an ongoing process that takes place either slowly or at an alarming rate. It results in endless erosion of topsoil, ecological degradation, soil collapse, etc.

What are the causes of Soil Erosion?

Following are the important causes of soil erosion:

Rainfall and Flooding

High levels of rainstorm are the main reasons for soil erosion. Four sorts of soil erosion that are caused by rainfall are:

  • Rill erosion

  • Gully erosion

  • Sheet erosion

  • Splash erosion

The raindrops take away the soil which is then washed away into the nearby streams and rivers. Regions with very heavy and frequent rainfall face an outsized amount of soil loss. The flowing water during floods also erodes plenty of soil by creating potholes, rock-cut basins, etc.

Agriculture

The farming practices are the main reasons for soil erosion. The agricultural activities disturb the bottom layer. The trees are cleared and therefore the land is ploughed to sow new seeds. Since most of the crops are grown during the spring season, the land becomes unfertile during winters. Also, the tyres of tractors make grooves on the land making a natural pathway for water making it easy for the soil particles to erode easily. 

Grazing

The grazing animals prey on the grasses and take away the vegetation from the land. Their hooves disgust the soil. They also pull out plants by their roots. This loosens the soil and makes it more vulnerable to erosion.

Logging and Mining

A large number of trees are hampered to carry out the logging process. Trees hold the soil firmly. The shade of the trees protects the soil from getting eroded because of heavy rainfall. The leaf litter that protects the soil from erosion, is almost lost during logging. Mining activities also disturb the land and leave the soil more vulnerable to erosion.

Construction

The construction of roads and buildings exposes the soil to erosion. The forests and grasslands are cleared for construction purposes, which exposes the soil making it susceptible to erosion.

Rivers and Streams

The flowing rivers and streams take away the soil particles deduct the V-shaped erosion activity.

Heavy Winds

During dry weather or at semi-arid regions, the minute soil particles are carried away by wind to faraway lands. This degrades the soil and results in desertification.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is Soil Erosion?

Soil Erosion is often defined because the situation when the soil particles are loosened or washed away within the oceans, rivers, valleys, streams or lands distant.

2. What are the reasons for Soil Erosion?

Some of the reasons of Soil Erosion are - 

  1. Rainfall

  2. Construction 

  3. Logging and Mining 

  4. Agriculture 

  5. Construction 

3. What are the four types of erosion that take place due to rainfall?

Four sorts of soil erosion that are caused by rainfall are:

  • Rill erosion

  • Gully erosion

  • Sheet erosion

  • Splash erosion

4. What is Grazing?

The grazing animals prey on the grasses and take away the vegetation from the land. Their hooves disgust the soil. They also pull out plants by their roots. This loosens the soil and makes it more vulnerable to erosion.

5. How to prevent Soil Erosion?

Some of the ways of Soil Erosion are - 

  •  Plant trees on unfruitful lands to limit erosion of soil.

  • Add mulch and rocks to prevent the plants and grass underneath to prevent erosion .

  • Mulch matting usually won’t reduce erosion on the slopes.

  • A wall at the rock bottom of the slope can help in preventing the soil from eroding.

  • Every household should have an accurate waste management system in order that water flows down into proper water collecting systems.