Vomiting

What Is Vomiting?

Vomiting is a forceful expulsion of stomach contents via mouth and nose. The medical term for vomiting is ‘emesis’. Vomiting causes can be numerous, starting from nausea to food poisoning or cancer.


However, one-time vomiting usually has no severe heal implications, but recurring vomiting is an indication of something serious.


How Vomiting Occurs

Typically, vomiting is the final stage of three consecutive events. These are nausea, retching and emesis.

  1. Nausea: It is an unpleasant experience for any human being. Physiologically, nausea is connected to reduce gastric motility and increased tone in the small intestine. Moreover, reverse peristalsis is often noted in the proximal small intestine. However, this physical experience of nausea is challenging to describe.

  2. Retching: It refers to the spasmodic respiratory within a closed glottis. During retching, the antrum of the stomach contracts and the cardia and fundus relaxes. 

  3. Emesis: This is the final stage. Here, the contents of the gastric and small intestine are propelled up to the mouth.


What is the Reason for Vomiting?

The reasons for vomiting could be anything. However, it is not a disease; rather, it is a symptom. The reasons for vomiting are –

  • Any gastronomical infection.

  • Gastronomical disorders like peptic ulcer, disease of liver and pancreatitis, celiac disease, etc.

  • Motion sickness

  • Morning sickness due to pregnancy.

  • Various medications, sometimes chemotherapy.


Types of Vomiting

  • Dry Heaves: Dry heaves are the type of vomit where the feeling is present, but nothing comes out. It is termed as non-productive vomit.

  • Blood-Streaked Vomit: Blood streaked vomiting causes a cut in the esophagus or stomach. Here, vomit comes out filled with blood, having red or dark-brown colour.

  • Coffee-Ground Vomit: Intestinal bleeding in the upper-gastro results in exposure of iron in the blood to the stomach acid. This acid oxides the iron and causes the vomit to resemble coffee grounds. It could be a sign of health issues like GERD, peptic ulcer, liver disease, etc.

  • Bile-Stained Vomiting: Bile vomiting is persistent vomiting following a meal. Moreover, bile reflux and bowel obstruction result in this vomit. Bile blends with food in the duodenum and when the small intestine is blocked, its substances expulse with the bile. Furthermore, following surgical removal of a gallbladder, gastric bypass surgery, etc. this reflux of bile takes place in the stomach and leads to this vomit.

  • Faecal Vomit: This type of vomiting occurs due to intestinal obstruction, or unusual connection between colon and stomach. As a result, an expulsion of fully or partially digested matter happens via the mouth. 

  • Projectile Vomiting: Here, the contents of the stomach comes out in a massive force. Typically, it occurs following feeding.


Treatment of Vomiting

There are various vomiting treatments; with one-time vomiting typically considered to be quite serious. However, following an incident of vomiting, hydration is essential. Thus, individuals must consume plenty of water since they contain the necessary electrolytes to help in this situation.


Moreover, solid food can upset a sensitive stomach at this point. Thus, it is better to avoid such food at this point. Furthermore, medication can help to reduce or control vomiting.


Apart from these, alternative remedies like consuming ginger, lemongrass oil, or bergamot are an effective vomiting solution. Additionally, dietary changes can also help in case of repeated vomiting.


Vomiting causes due to several reasons, and most of them are very natural. However, repeated vomiting should not be neglected, as it can point towards other health issues. Students can learn about other such health issues from our detailed study materials. You can also download our Vedantu app for better access to these study notes and interactive online sessions.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Meaning of Vomiting?

Ans. Vomiting is an expulsion of stomach contents via mouth and nose. The medical term for vomiting is ‘emesis’. However, there are several reasons for vomiting, such as nausea, any liver disease, food poisoning, etc.

2. Why does Vomiting Occur?

Ans. Vomiting occurs due to the consumption of any unhealthy food, excessive alcohol, underlying health issues, food poisoning, etc. Even though a single time vomiting is okay, regular vomiting is an indication of several severe health hazards.

3. What are the Types of Vomiting?

Ans. There are various types of vomiting, such as dry heaves, blood-streaked, coffee ground, bile stained, projectile, etc. However, in case of any regular vomiting individuals must consult a doctor.