Types of Cancer

How Many Types of Cancer?

All through our lives, in our body, healthy cells divide and replace themselves in a pattern that is controlled by the body. Cancer introduces itself in our system when a cell gets altered so that it can multiply uncontrollably. A composure of such abnormal cells together in a cluster or mass is known as a tumour. Cancer cells continue to spread and grow by direct extension or by a process known as metastasis. Cells that are malignant travel through lymphatic or blood vessels forming new cells of tumours in other parts of the body. Now that we know what cancer is, we will learn about different types of cancer, its causes, symptoms, and treatment.

First, let us know what the major types of cancer are

  1. Carcinomas – the most common type of cancer diagnosed mostly in breasts, skin, pancreas, lungs, and other organs and glands.

  2. Lymphoma – it is a cancer of lymphocytes

  3. Leukaemia – is a cancer of the blood

  4. Sarcoma – cancer of the bone, muscle, blood vessel, fat, cartilage, and other connective and soft tissue of the body

  5. Melanoma – cancer of cells that make pigment in the skin

Let us get into details of causes, symptoms, and treatment of Carcinoma, lymphoma, and melanoma cancer.

Carcinoma

Carcinoma, also regarded as skin cancer, has two most common types that are Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC). Carcinoma is a cancerous tumour of the epithelial tissue that is underneath the skin. This tissue is also present in blood vessels, digestive tract, and other organs. It indicates that carcinomas can affect other areas of the body besides the skin.

BCC is much more common than the Squamous cell. Merkel Cell carcinoma is another rare form of skin cancer. Carcinoma is diagnosed mostly in people who are above the age of 50 years. People who have white skin are more prone to Carcinoma.

Causes

  • The primary cause of Carcinoma is the exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation (UV)

  • Another significant risk is UV exposure from tanning beds and drying lamps in nail salons

  • Having many large or irregular moles or freckles

  • having an autoimmune disease such as lupus

  • Weak immune system

  • Consuming medicines that make skin photosensitive

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV)

Symptoms

BCC and SCC are skin tumours, and they share specific characteristics. The appearance of these skin cancers can differ.

Carcinomas that have a flat surface can resemble healthy skin. Whenever you spot an unexpected abrasion, you must visit your healthcare professional for a check-up or monitoring.

Including its presence, a wound or lump can cause symptoms that are noticeable in its early stages. So, you might notice it before it becomes significant as it may itch, bleed, or cause pain.

Treatment

The treatment of this cancer depends on its type, size, stage, and location. Here are some of the treatment options

  • Curettage and electrodesiccation

  • Surgical excision

  • Cryosurgery

  • Topical chemotherapy

  • Radiation therapy

  • Laser therapy

Lymphoma

Lymphoma causes cancer of the lymphatic system. It develops white blood cells which are also known as lymphocytes. It helps fight disease in the body and play a vital role in body’s immune defences

This cancer can quickly metastasize or spread to other tissues and organs in the body. It has a high tendency to spread in lungs, bone marrow, and liver. Lymphoma can be developed in people of any age. It is mostly found in children and adults aged 15 to 24 years.

Causes

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known yet, but there are certain risk factors that you must be aware of 

  • If you have immune system diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or celiac disease

  • A weak immune system from organ transplant or HIV/AIDS.

  • A close relative who has lymphoma

  • Were exposed to benzene or chemicals that kill bugs

Symptoms

Symptoms of lymphoma include

  • Swollen glands

  • Shortness of breath

  • Cough

  • Night sweats

  • Fever

  • Weight loss

  • Fatigue

  • Itching

Treatment

Treatment of lymphoma include

  • Biologic therapy

  • Antibody therapy

  • Radioimmunotherapy

  • Chemotherapy

  • Radiation therapy

  • Steroids

  • Stem cell transplantation

  • Surgery

Myeloma

Myeloma is a type of blood cancer. There is no permanent cure to it, but appropriate treatment can slow down its spread and make symptoms go away. When you have multiple myeloma white blood cells called plasma cell makes antibodies that fight infection multiply the wrong way. As the myeloma gets worse, the plasma cell spills out of bone marrow and spread. It causes damage to the organs.

Causes

The exact cause is not known, but there are certain risk factors like

  • Age older than 65

  • Overweight or obese

  • Radiation exposure

  • Contact with chemicals used in a rubber factory

Symptoms

You may not notice symptoms early; it may develop over time

  • Weakness and fatigue

  • Bone pain

  • Weight loss

  • Constipation

  • Infections

  • Thirst

Treatment

  • Chemotherapy

  • Corticosteroid

  • Interferon

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is the Symptom and Treatment for Sarcoma?

Ans: Sarcoma is cancer that affects different tissues that are connecting, supporting, or surrounding the body's system. Sarcoma is most common in children. 

Symptoms of sarcoma include tumour and pain. Tumour is a noticeable lump or swelling. If this tumour affects local tissues, muscles, or nerves, it may be present in the area. Gastrointestinal tumours may bleed and may also include blood in the stool with tarry appearance. For the treatment doctor may recommend surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Usually, chemotherapy is more effective in treating bone sarcoma. It can kill cancer cells that remain after surgery.

2. What are the Significant Types of Cancer?

Ans: Almost all cancers form tumours, but all tumours are not cancerous. Non-cancerous tumours, also known as benign, do not spread to other parts of the body and do not create new tumours. Cancerous, also known as a malignant tumour, can overcome the healthy cells, interfere with the body’s functions, and consume nutrients from body tissues. Carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, lymphoma, and leukaemia are significant types of cancer. The most diagnosed cancer is Carcinoma which originates in breasts, skin, lungs, pancreas, and other glands and organs.