3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), also termed as ecstasy (E) or molly, is a psychoactive substance mainly used for recreational purposes. Changed sensations, increased energy, empathy, and enjoyment are all desired outcomes. The effects of taking it by mouth start in 30 to 45 minutes and last for 3 to 6 hours.
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Merck was the first to produce MDMA in 1912. Starting in the 1970s, it was used to augment psychotherapy before becoming famous as a street drug in the 1980s. MDMA is frequently linked to dance parties, raves, and electronic dance music. Additional substances including amphetamine, ephedrine, and methamphetamine might well be mixed with it.
In 2016, around 21 million people aged 15 to 64 consumed ecstasy (0.3 percent of the world population). It was close to the percentage of people who are using amphetamines or cocaine, but lesser than the percentage of people that use opioids or cannabis. As per 2017, approximately 7% of persons in the United States had used MDMA at some point in their life, with 0.9 percent having taken it in the previous year.
Triangular MDMA Tablets Marked With an "X"
Speckled Ecstasy Tablet With Fish Imprint
White Ecstasy Tablet With Star Dust Imprint
Off-White Ecstasy Tablet With Crow's Foot Symbol
Ecstasy Tablet With Thumbs Up Logo
Blue Ecstasy Tablet With Butterfly Imprint
Triangular Ecstasy Tablet With "X" Logo
Yellow Ecstasy Tablet With Space Shuttle Symbol
MDMA users say that subjective effects begin to manifest after 30 to 60 minutes of oral administration, peaking at 75 to 120 minutes, and then plateauing for roughly 3.5 hours. MDMA has been claimed to have the following short-term psychedelic effects:
Euphoria – a feeling of general contentment and well-being
Entactogenic Effects- heightened empathy or sentiments of intimacy with others and oneself
Increased sociability, self-confidence, and illusion of facilitated communication
Relaxation and reduced anxiety
Increased perception, sensation, or sexuality
Altered sense of time
MDMA's effect is dependent on the dose, environment, and user. In comparison to other psychedelics, the resulting altered state has less variety. MDMA usage during parties, for instance, is linked to increased motor activity, a diminished sense of self, and a lack of awareness of one's surroundings. MDMA use in a quiet atmosphere and when concentrating has been linked to greater lucidity, concentration, sensitivity to aesthetic qualities of the surroundings, improved and elevated emotional awareness, and good communication capability. MDMA has been linked to infantile thoughts, mood lability, and memories and moods associated with childhood experiences in psychotherapy settings.
Recreational - MDMA is frequently referred to as the "rave drug" and is commonly found in festivals, clubs, and house parties. The sensory effects of music and illumination are typically very synergistic with the substance in the rave atmosphere. MDMA's psychedelic amphetamine nature appeals to consumers in a party setting in a variety of ways.
Medical - Because of the drug's stimulatory effects, certain users love the feeling of mass communion that the drug provides, and others use it like a party fuel. MDMA has been used less frequently than other stimulants, usually once or twice a week. MDMA has no acknowledged medical purposes as of 2017. It had a limited usage in psychotherapy until it was universally prohibited. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allowed limited study on MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 2017, based on early data that MDMA may improve PTSD psychotherapy efficacy.
Other - Certain religious practitioners take MDMA in small doses as an entheogen to improve prayer or meditation. MDMA was used in New Age spiritual practises as a supplement.
Short term- Even though single dose toxicity might happen in susceptible persons, acute adverse effects are mainly the result of large or numerous doses. Hyperthermia and dehydration are the two very serious short-term physical health hazards associated with MDMA. MDMA users have acquired life-threatening or deadly hyponatremia (overly low sodium level in the blood) as a result of taking large amounts of water without replenishing electrolytes.
The Following are Some of the Acute Side Effects of MDMA Use:
Increased blood pressure and heart rate
Increased wakefulness or insomnia
Bruxism (grinding and clenching of the teeth)
Elevated sweating and perspiration
Increased psychomotor activity
Loss of appetite
Visual and auditory hallucinations (very rare)
Nausea and vomiting
Long-Term - The long-term effects of MDMA on human brain structure and function are yet unknown as of 2015. There is, though, clear evidence of structural and functional abnormalities among MDMA users who have had a long-term exposure to the drug. There is no proof of structural or functional alterations in MDMA users who have only had a moderate lifetime exposure (less than 50 doses and less than100 tablets ingested).
Nonetheless, even when used in moderation, MDMA can be hazardous. Furthermore, it is unknown if "typical" MDMA users may get neurotoxic brain damage. Long-term MDMA exposure in humans has been demonstrated to cause significant neurodegeneration in serotonergic axon terminals in the striatum, prefrontal, hippocampus, and occipital regions. Serotonergic axon terminals were shown to be neurotoxic for even more than two years. Increases in brain temperature associated with MDMA usage are linked to MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.
Overdose - Due to the involvement of various organ systems, MDMA overdose symptoms vary greatly. In comparison to its usage rates, the number of fatal MDMA intoxication cases is modest. MDMA was not the only substance implicated in the majority of fatalities. Serotonin syndrome and sympathomimetic effects are the main causes of acute poisoning.
Carvedilol can be used to treat sympathomimetic side effects. The toxicity of MDMA in overdose might be enhanced by caffeine, which is commonly cut to increase volume. A plan for treating hyperthermia, serotonin syndrome, hyponatraemia, and multiple organ failure caused by acute MDMA toxicity has been described.