Introduction to Wound

The largest organ in the body that covers the entire external surface of the body is called the skin. It is made up of three layers that are, epidermis, endodermis, and hypodermis. According to pathology, a wound is referred to as a sharp injury that damages the epidermal skin. In this condition, the skin immediately gets cut or torn. It can be defined as the breaking of continuity of any tissue present in the body due to an external situation such as violent acts or accidents. It can be healed by taking proper care, to give proper treatment one should know the type of the cut, how deep the cut is, the reason for the wound, and the way to treat it. If the wound is not provided with medical treatment, it may lead to complications. Let us understand the different types, how to treat it, and how the wound has to be dressed.

Types of Wounds

Based on the level of contamination, the wound can be classified as, 

  • Clean Wound: 

In this case, the chances of getting the wound healed are very high, as there are no organisms present around it.

  • Contaminated Wound: 

It occurs due to an accidental injury, and the pathogenic organisms are found around it.

  • Infected Wound: 

It is caused by the pathogenic organisms, which multiply evenly leading to a clinical sign called infection. 

  • Colonized Wound: 

It is a chronic situation, where the chances of healing the wound are difficult.

Open Wound

The injury that involves the breakage of tissue externally or internally is called open wounds. Most of the open wounds can be treated at home.

The different Types of Open Wounds are as follows:

  • Abrasion: 

When the skin is rubbed or scraped to a rough surface abrasion occurs. There is not a lot of bleeding in this case of the wound, but it has to be cleaned in order to avoid getting infected.

  • Laceration: 

The tearing of the skin or deep cut is referred to as laceration. The accidents that occurred due to machinery or tools or knives cause a laceration. If the laceration is deep then the bleeding can be excessive.

  • Puncture: 

The small hole that is caused by a nail or needle is called a puncture. The bleeding might not be that severe but it can damage the internal organs if the hole is deep enough.

  • Avulsion: 

The complete or partial tearing of the skin and the beneath the tissue is called avulsion. It will occur in the incidents such as gunshots or explosions or body-crushing accidents. The bleeding is heavy in case of avulsion.

Closed Wound

The injury happens under the outer epidermis and it is not exposed to the outer environment. 

Types of the Closed Wounds involve:

  1. Contusions: 

It is known to be a common type of sports injury. It can damage small blood vessels, muscles, capillaries, tissues, internal organs, and sometimes bones as well. The colour changes from reddish to bluish in the injured area of the skin. 

  1. Hematomas: 

The injury that damages the blood capillaries and vessels, resulting in the flow of blood in a limited space. It will be present as a spongy, rubbery, and lump-like lesion, which is more painful. It can either be small or large and can present under the skin or inside the body.

  1. Crush injuries: 

It is caused due to the squeezing of a part of a body in between the two surfaces due to the high-pressure forces. 

Wound Dressing

The wound treatment is different and dependent on several factors. Age and skin type are the major ones that require the way of treating a wound and making it less prone to infection. Along with avoiding the infection, proper care is to be taken to cure the wound, and hence dressing is important. The dressing is done depending on the factors such as the type of the wound, its location, how big and severe the wound is. To heal and to prevent the further complications that might happen to the wound, we use a method with direct contact to help it heal, called wound dressing. 

Different Types of Wound Dressing include:

  • Cloth: 

The most commonly found and helpful one is cloth dressing. It is used to protect the open wounds that occur due to injuries in the sensitive area or too broken skin or scraped knee or uncomfortable cut. As the first layer of protection medical practitioners uses cloth dressing. 

  • Foam: 

These are good for the wounds that exhibit a foul smell. It helps to heal the wound and maintain the moisture. These are soft and absorbent depending on the brand used. It absorbs the excess fluids present in the wounds by keeping them moist. 

  • Transparent: 

To monitor the wound healing doctors use a transparent type of dressing. These are used mostly on burns, surgical incision sites, and ulcers. These are more flexible and due to their thin-film, these are more comfortable. 

  • Hydrocolloid: 

These are non-breathable and self-adhesive dressings. They help in fast healing by creating moist conditions. The surface of these dressings is coated with a substance that has polysaccharides and other polymers. Thus these gels help to heal the wound fastly as they are in direct contact with it. These are mostly used on burns, necrotic wounds, pressure ulcers, and under compression wraps. 

  • Hydrogel: 

For the wounds that are dry and just need a little help to heal, hydrogels are used. These help to keep the wound moisten by reducing the pain and it is comfortable as well. These are used on large wounds for a strong recovery. As it contains excess liquid that promotes cellular growth, these are used on second-degree burns as well. 

  • Collagen: 

These types are commonly used for chronic wounds. These act as a temporary second skin. It is a good alternative to the traditional type of dressing. It helps to remove dead cells, tighten the edges, and encourages the formation of blood vessels.

Wound Healing

The healing of the skin that begins immediately after an injury and that might take years is called wound healing. It is found on the epidermal layer. It is done in three phases such as inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling disruption in any of these phases leads to abnormal healing of the wound. 

There are Two Types of Wound Healing:

  1. Primary Healing: 

The non-infected, well-approximated wound is healed in an uncomplicated way that includes surgical wounds.

  1. Secondary healing: 

If there is an interruption in the course of healing due to infection, hypoxia, or dysfunction of the immune system then this stage begins. They are prone to poor healing and infections.

Conclusion

The wound is most common that happens to living beings in everyday life. Thus, proper care is required to heal the wound to avoid further complications. When we treat the wound correctly it can help to heal the wound fastly by keeping our body protected from infections. There are different factors that help to heal the wound and if neglected, the severity can increase.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is a Stab Wound?

Ans: The wounds that occur due to sharp objects that usually happen due to knives are called stab wounds. These can happen by some other sharp objects such as ice picks, or broken bottles. 

2. Mention the Types of Wound Healing.

Ans: There two types of healing:

  • Primary healing

  • Secondary healing