Bookmark added to your notes.
View Notes

Introduction to Physiology

Physiology, in other words, is the science of life. It is one of the areas of biology aiming to study the functioning of living organisms, animals, and plants. It helps to understand the function of cells at the ionic and molecular level with the integrated behaviour of the living organism, including the human body. By learning the principles of anatomy and physiology, it helps the physiologist on how the body works and responds during challenges of everyday life. The major emphasis is given on studying integrating molecular, cellular, and whole-body functions.

What Physiologists Do?

Physiologists usually work in university and research institutes, continuously learning the working of cells in living organisms. Physiology is an exciting stream to learn and work on that underpins clinical medicine. In other words, it helps to provide an interface between the physical sciences and life science.

Throughout the study, physiologists keep learning different aspects of human and animal body working. Moreover, some physiologists even work or investigate the behaviours of individual proteins in single cells. Others investigate the integration of tissue cells and organs.

It is vital to know that physiologists don't only work in research institutes, but also work with patients as a part of management disease. They also work with athletes to help them improve their overall performance in the game. The best part of their job is they get to travel across different countries for learning and research purposes.

Human Physiology

Physiologists work on human physiology to study the nature of the human body or structure. It helps in studying how the human body works. Muscle contraction, cells, tissues, and other areas of the human body are studied.

Plant Physiology

Plant physiology is the study of plant tissues and their growth. It is the foremost line of defense and medium of interaction in different environmental conditions. In other words, it is the study of plant behaviour and functioning encompassing dynamic processes of growth and metabolism. In plants, most of the active process takes place at the level of cells, tissues, and other parts of the plant. Plant physiology and biochemistry is the most interesting area to learn for a physiologist. They give complete insight into the growth and death of plants.

Animal Physiology

Animal physiology involves the study of how the animal body works and investigating biological processes of the same. The study involves understanding various levels of organic cells, organ systems, and the whole anatomy of the animal. Under this study, the physiologists examine the biological processes function under different environmental stages. The entire process is closely linked with the anatomy and the basic physical and chemical laws. When animal physiology is linked with biology, the study covers a broader area. It includes the scientific disciplines of cell biology, developmental biology, and immunology.

Medical Physiology

Medical physiology covers the studying of various body systems of the body from the molecular level. This study majorly implies humans and other living things. In other words, it helps to understand the cellular metabolism in living organisms. It helps to understand the state of health and wellness of a human during different opportunities. It practices human and living organism health.

Clinical Physiology

Under clinical physiology, the physiologist diagnoses the patient by undergoing specialized tests of heart and blood vessels. The clinical physiologist would conduct a test to measure the movement of the metabolic process by using different tools including magnetic resonance imagining, x-ray, and nuclear medicine scanners.

Branches of Physiology

There are different branches of physiology that help to understand different areas of humans. Below are some-

  • Cell Physiology- It involves the study of cell work and interaction. It concentrates on membrane transport and neuron transmission.

  • System Physiology- This area focuses on computational and mathematical modelling of complex biological systems. It helps to describe how individual cells or components of the system respond.

  • Evolutionary Physiology: Studying the way systems or body parts work. Evolutionary physiology implies over multiple generations.

In the human physiological study, there are different systems covered:

  • Circulatory System: This includes the study of blood vessels, and how blood circulation works in the human body.

  • Digestive and Excretory System: Charting the movement of solids into liquid in our body. It involves the study of different internal organs of the body including the liver, spleen, and pancreas.

  • Endocrine System: This involves the study of endocrine hormones carrying signals throughout the organisms. Moreover, the expert studies the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, and gonads.

  • Immune System: The body’s natural defense system comprises white blood cells and lymph systems. Moreover, molecules like antibodies and cytokines feature heavily.

  • Nervous System: The study involves the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord. Nervous system study includes research of senses, memory, and emotions.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are the Different Types of Physiology?

Ans: There are different types or branches of physiology physiologists can study. Some of the physiology types are-

  • Cell Physiology: It involves the study of cells to know how they carry themselves in the body and interact with each other. For humans, these cells are very important to work perfectly.

  • System Physiology: Also called system biology, the study involves mathematical learning of biological systems and focuses on components like metabolism. Physiologists use computational models for better understanding biological processes.

  • Exercise Physiology: The study involves processes occurring in the body during physical workouts. It helps to know how our body reacts to long-term workouts.

2. What are the Benefits of Exercise Physiology?

Ans: Exercise physiology is a type of medical science using exercise to treat people for health conditions. It is proven that regular workouts can help our body to stay active and mind calm. Exercise physiologists conduct analyses of patients who perform regular workouts and how it is helping them to improve their mental and physical health. EP does the regular check-up on how body parts are responding to performing regular workouts. Although they are not personal trainers, they help in teaching you specific skills needed for the improvement of the body. It is important to undergo EP once to understand how our body works and how we can improve.