Parts of Plants

What are Plants?

As collective members of the ecosystem, we all come in contact with plants in our daily lives. Plants form the most vital and most essential components of our environment. Plants, just like human beings, are living organisms that require food, water and sunlight to live. Moreover, like human beings, they grow old and die, they are made up of cells and most importantly, they are equally reactive.
 
Just like human beings, their physical structure also consists of different parts. Each of those parts has a separate function to fulfill. Without those parts, it would not be possible for a plant to live. 

The above discussion is bound to give rise to an important question- Where do plants come from? The answer to this question is seeds. Plants basically germinate from seeds by getting the right amount of air, water and sunlight. 

Another essential question about plants would be – What do plants need to grow? At the very basic level, the answer would be the three most important components for any living being to survive- air, water and sunlight. However, the right proportion of each of the following components is what that drives the growth of plants. For example, when plants are planted in the soil with a proper amount of exposure to sunlight, then only they can grow. 

Different parts of a plant

Before we get into the details, first we must be aware of the similarities between plants and human beings. As we have already established, plants are comprised of various parts- a fact similar to human beings who are also made up of different body parts. Just like each body part of a human being has a different role to play, each part of a plant exhibits a unique role that stimulates the growth of plants. Some of the most important parts of plants include roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruit and seeds. A detailed description of each of the parts of plants is mentioned below:

  • Roots: Roots are the most important part of a plant as they are responsible for transferring the necessary nutrients to the plant. They are the agents responsible for delivering water and minerals to the plants. Besides that, they are also the active support system of plants without which the plants would fail to stick to the soil. Moreover, they are also responsible for saving up food for later use for the plants.

  • Stems: Stems are also support systems for the plants. Their main function is to act as delivery agents for the nutrients and water stored in the roots and transferring them to the other plant parts in the form of glucose. Stems also transfer food from the leaves to the other parts of the plant.

  • Leaves: Leaves are a fundamental part of a plant as all the necessary food for the plants are stored in the leaves. A special part about leaves is that they are designed for the process of photosynthesis which contributes to the process of making food in the leaves.

  • Flowers: Flowers are known as the reproductive products of plants. They are mostly responsible for producing fruits. The process is like this- the ovules present in the flowers get fertilized and produces fruit. They also contain pollen which helps in the pollination of the flower. After the combined process of fertilization and pollination, the ovules get transformed into a fruit.

  • Fruits: Fruits are the products of reproduction in plants. The most essential component from which reproduction starts, that is the seed, is present in the fruit. Therefore, they act as a protective layer for seeds.

  • Seeds: Seeds are the main agents for reproduction. They can be found most commonly in fruits from where they germinate and develop into new plants.
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    Parts of Plants and their Functions

    1. The function of roots: Roots have the most crucial function of absorbing water and minerals from the soil. Another of their most fundamental functions is to act as a support system for the plant so that it stands upright on the ground. Other secondary functions of roots include storing food for future use and regulating the growth of plants.

    2. The function of stems: The function of the stem is to produce fruit, flowers and leaves. A primary function of the stem is to provide a foundational structure and protection to the plant. Another notable function of the stem is to aid in the vegetative reproduction of plants. Stems protect the plants from grazing animals by transforming their axillary buds into thorns. In hot and humid areas like deserts, there are a few plants whose stems are capable of transforming themselves into broad and pudgy structures. Such stems are capable of storing a huge amount of food for future purposes and prevent the excess loss of water.

    The most unique qualities of stems can be listed as follows:

  • Support/foundation: A vital function of the stem is to act as a medium to all the important parts of a plant like buds, flowers, leaves and fruits for the plant. They are the main foundational aspect of the plant that makes it stand firm and erect into the soil.

  • Conveying and hauling: One of the primary functions of the stem is to transport food materials and nutrients that are stored in the roots to the remaining parts of the plant. They also transport the food prepared by the leaves to the rest of the plant body.

  • Storehouse: Stems are the storehouse of food prepared by the leaves. Stems store the food prepared by the leaves in the form of starch.

  • Procreation: Vegetative reproduction is one of the primary roles of a stem.


  • 3. The function of leaves: Since plants contain chlorophyll, most of the food required by the plants is prepared by them with the help of water, sunlight and carbon dioxide. The primary functions of leaves are listed below:

  • Preparation of food through photosynthesis: The leaves of plants get their required air, water and sunlight and prepare the food needed for plants through the process of photosynthesis.

  • Transpiration: The process of transpiration is one of the fundamental functions of leaves. Transpiration is the process in which excess water is removed from the plants through the stomata.

  • Procreation: Leaves sometimes play a role in reproduction as well. There are some particular leaves like Bryophyllum that reproduce new leaves.

  • In Summary

  • Plants are vital components of the environment that require food to live just like human beings.

  • A plant is comprised of different parts where each part has a unique function to perform.

  • The different parts of a plant include roots, stems, leaves, flowers, seeds and fruits.

  • Roots have the function of absorbing water and minerals from the soil whereas the primary functions of stems are supporting, transporting, storing and reproducing.

  • Leaves form a vital component of plants as food for plants is prepared in them. Leaves are capable of performing photosynthesis and transpiration.