Getting to Know Plants

What are Plants?

Plants are the multicellular, photosynthetic, eukaryotes, which are grouped into a separate kingdom of Plantae. A well-defined cell and its specialized organs, as do animal plants, which are mainly associated with their cellular functions. The only living species that can manufacture their own food are plants, and this is mainly because of the presence of specialized structures in the plant cell.

Different types of plants can be seen by us in our garden, few are small, tiny, short, big trees with colourful flowers and fruits. There are different types of plants which are classified into their own categories.

Parts of Plants

A plant is divided into two main parts: Root system and the Shoot system.

Root System:

A root system is the underground part of the plant’s body, which constitutes the major part of the plant, roots, which is mainly grown downwards into the soil. These roots usually have a root cap at its tip and root hairs. The main functions of roots are:

  1. Store food in some plants.

  2. Helps in vegetative reproduction.

  3. It helps in the anchoring of the plant’s body deep into the soil.

  4. Absorbs and transports water, minerals and other nutrients from the soil.

Shoot System:

The aerial part of the plant is the shoot system, which usually develops above the ground level. In this stem, leaves, buds, flowers, fruits, and seeds are included.


Stems are the long, supportive axis of plants. Stems are tender, strong or woody as in trees or thin and green like herbs. It is the central axis of the plants. Functions of stem include:

  1. Provide support to the entire plant.

  2. Stores food in the form of starch.

  3. Hold and connect to leaves, buds, flowers, fruits and help them to stand erect.

  4. Helps in the transportation of water, minerals and other nutrients in both the directions.


Leaves are the most crucial part of the shoot system. They are also called as the food factory of the plants. Functions of leaves include:

  1. Helps in the Floral Induction.

  2. Involved in the exchange of gases.

  3. As a food storage organ of the plant it can be served.

  4. Synthesizes food through the process called photosynthesis.

  5. Plays an important role in the removal of excess water through its tiny pores called stomata.


The most colourful part of a plant is flowers. It is also called the reproductive part of a plant as it carries the reproductive organs. The main functions of the flower are:

  1. Pollination.

  2. Reproduction.

  3. Formation of fruits.


In the shoot system fruits are also a part, which holds seeds within them. Fruits are developed from the ovaries in the flowers of the plants. The main functions of fruits are:

  1. Involved in the production of seeds.

  2. Helps in the Dispersal of the matured seeds.

  3. By acting as a barrier between the seed and the external environment it protects the seed..

Classification of plants

Plants are classified into several types and their classifications are based on:

Based on the Reproduction

Plants are classified into, based on the production of flowers, fruits, and seeds:

1. Flowering plants: Apple, banana, mango, peach, and pear are few examples of flowering plants.

2. Nonflowering plants: Cypress, and pine, are a few examples of non-flowering plants.

Based on their Life Cycle

Based on these criteria, plants are classified into:

1. Annuals: Corn, rice, wheat, and pulses are a few examples of annual plants.

2. Biennials: Carrot, onions, and beetroot are a few examples of biennial plants.

3. Perennials: Rose, lavender, dianthus, and lilies are a few examples of perennial plants.

Based on their Growth Habitats

Based on their height and other growing habitats plants are also classified:

1. Herbs: Grass, Mint, and wheat are a few examples of herbs.

2. Shrubs: Henna, lemon, and rose are a few examples of shrubs.

3. Trees: Banyan, mango, cashew, are some examples of trees.

4. Climbers: Pea plant and money plant, are examples of Climbers.

5. Creepers: Watermelon and pumpkin are examples of Creepers.

Fun Facts

1. Plants play a major role in our life. There would be no more life existing on planet earth without plants. With the supply of food to eat, air to breathe, fabrics to cover our body, shelter, medicines, timbers and many products for human use, plants help us. Around three lakh identified plant species have there are, and this list is still increasing.

2. An average size tree can provide enough wood to make 170,100 pencils.

3. From the tree bark of a willow tree the first type of aspirin, painkiller and fever reducer came.

4.  In the ocean there can be found  85%of plant life.

5. Bananas contain a natural chemical which can make people feel happy.

6. The name Brazil is named after a tree.

7. The Amazon rainforest produces half the world’s oxygen supply.

8.  Cricket bats are made of a tree called Willow and baseball bats are made out of the wood of the Hickory tree.

9. The tallest tree ever was an Australian eucalyptus – In 1872 it was measured at 435 feet tall.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What Makes the Color of Plant Leaves Green?

Because the leaves are full of chemicals that are green, the leaves of most plants are green. Chlorophyll is the important chemical which makes it green, and it allows plants to make food so they can grow using water, air, and light from the sun. So the green chemical chlorophyll is really important.

2. What a Plant Needs to Grow and What Liquid Makes Plants Grow Faster?

Not only plants, but also all living things, have basic needs that must be met for them to survive. Light, air, water, a source of nutrition, space to live and grow and optimal temperature are included in their basic needs.

For the faster growth of plants, unflavored soda water is good. By the presence of sugar, the benefits of the carbonation and minerals in soda water may be negated.