Marigold is the standard and generic English name for plants that fall under the genus Tagetes. The genus comprises both perennial plants and annual plants. Most species under this genus are native to Southern Mexico and are herbaceous plants.
Some species of Marigolds, however, are found around the world. In fact, some are also considered as an invasive species.
The French Marigolds and the African Marigolds are the most common cultivated species under this genus. Some species of Marigold deter pests like insects, hence, are planted alongside plants like potato, tobacco, and tomato. A Marigold species known as Tagetes minuta is used in the manufacturing of "Marigold oil," which is used in perfume production and as a food flavoring agent.
The Marigold name Marigold is called Tagetes, a genus that encompasses many species.
Till now, there are many other classified species of Marigolds. A few of the most well-known are given below.
Tagetes, as the Marigold Name Marigold, species differ in size ranging from 0.1 to 2.2 m tall. Most of these species have pinnate green leaves. Naturally, blooms occur in orange, golden, white, and yellow colors, often with maroon highlights. Typically, the floral heads are with (1-) to 4–6 cm diameter, with both ray florets and disc florets generally. Although all the perennial species are gaining popularity, they tend to be planted as annuals in horticulture. They also have fibrous roots.
Based on the species, the Tagetes species grow well in almost all sorts of soils. Most horticultural selections grow the best in soil with good drainage, even though some cultivars are known to have good tolerance to drought.
The name Tagetes is derived from the Etruscan Tages' name, born from the earth's plowing. It likely refers to the ease with which plants of this genus come out every year either by the stems which regrow from the stump already in place or by the seeds produced in the previous year.
In English, the common name of Marigold is derived from Mary's gold, a name which is applied first to the same plant native to Europe, Calendula officinalis.
The most diverse and as well as the common Cultivations of Tagetes are variously referred to as African Marigolds (usually referred to as hybrids and cultivars of Tagetes erecta), or French Marigolds (usually referred to as cultivars and hybrids of Tagetes patula, of which many were developed in France). The so-called signet Marigolds are the hybrids derived mostly from the Tagetes Tenuifolia.
Marigold foliage has a pungent and musky scent, though some varieties have been bred to be scentless, depending on the species. It is said to deter some nematodes and some common insect pests as well. Hence, the target species are often used in companion planting for eggplant, tomato, chili pepper, potato, and tobacco. Because of the antibacterial thiophenes exuded by the roots, the Tagetes should not be planted near to any legume crop. A few of the perennial species are Rabbit, Deer, Javelina or Peccary-resistant, and Rodent.
T. Minuta (otherwise known as Khaki bush or Huacatay), originally from South America, has been an essential oil source for the perfume and industry called Tagete or "Marigold oil", and as a Flavouring in the tobacco and food industries. Commonly, it is cultivated in South Africa, where this is also a useful pioneer species plant in the reclamation of disturbed land.
The Tagetes erecta florets are abundant in the orange-yellow carotenoid lutein and are used as food colors (with the INS number E161b) in the European Union for foods like Vegetable Oil, Pasta, Mayonnaise, Margarine, Salad dressing, Baked goods, Confectionery, Ice Cream, Yogurt, Dairy products, Mustard, and Citrus Juice. However, in the United States, the extracts and powders are only approved as colorants in poultry feed.
Marigolds are fixed as a food plant for a few Lepidoptera caterpillars, including a nectar source and dot moth for other butterflies. Often, they are part of butterfly gardening plantings. Besides, many species are pollinated by beetles in the wild.
The species Tagetes Lucida called pericón are used to prepare anise-flavored medicinal and swedish tea in Mexico. In addition, it is used as a culinary herb and as a substitute for tarragon in various warm climates, and offered in the nursery as "Mexican mint Marigold" or "Texas tarragon."
Being native to southern South America, Tagetes Minuta is a tall and upright Marigold plant having small flowers and is used as a culinary herb in Peru, Ecuador, and Chile and Bolivia it is referred to by the Incan term Huacatay. The paste is used to make the Ocopa, a popular potato dish. Having both "yellow/orange" and "green" notes, the odor and taste of fresh T. Minuta is such as a mixture of tarragon, sweet basil, citrus, and mint. Also, it is explicitly used against nematodes and a medicinal tea for gastrointestinal complaints.
Marigold is local to Central and South America, particularly Mexico. From Mexico it spread to various regions of the planet during the early part of the sixteenth century. The name Tagetes was given later Tages, a mythical being, known for his magnificence. African Marigold was first presented into Spain right off the bat in the sixteenth century and became famous in Southern Europe. Another well-known kind of Marigold for example French Marigold (T. patula) followed a comparable course from Mexico to that of African sort.
Marigold is developed as a decorative yield for free blossoms just as a wellspring of color for poultry feed. Blossoms are sold in the market as free or in the wake of making into festoons.
Other than free blossom, it can likewise be utilized as cut bloom. Marigold is utilized particularly for beautification and furthermore in scene plans because of its variable tallness and shade of blossoms. It is exceptionally reasonable as a sheet material plant in herbaceous line and greenery. French Marigold is great for rockeries, edging, hanging crates and window boxes.
Leaf glue is utilized remotely against bubbles and carbuncles. Leaf separate is a decent solution for ear throb. Blossoms separate is considered as blood purifier, a solution for draining heaps furthermore is additionally a decent solution for eye illness and ulcers. The medicinal oil present in various
Types of Tagetes can track down use in the scent business
Region and Distribution
Development will in general be found near huge urban areas like Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore, Mysore,
Chennai, Calcutta and Delhi. The assessed region on which blossoms are filled in India is about 1, 10,000 hectares. Significant developing states are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Conventional blossoms, including Marigolds, possess almost 66% of this region. In northern India in Himachal Pradesh, limited scope ranchers are developing Marigold and other blossom crops for wreaths and beautification.
Tagetes erecta (African Marigold)
The African Marigold plant is tough, yearly; around 90 cm tall erect and expanded.
Leaves are pinnately separated and handouts are lanceolate and serrated. Blossoms are single to completely two fold with huge globular heads. The florets are either 2-lipped or quilled. Blossom shading changes from lemon yellow to yellow, brilliant yellow or orange.
The French Marigold is a strong yearly, around 30 cm tall, framing a ragged plant. Foliage is dim green with ruddy stems. Leaves are pinnately isolated and pamphlets are direct lanceolate furthermore serrated. Blossoms are little, either single or twofold, borne on proportionately long peduncles. The blossom shading differs from yellow to mahogany red.
Marigolds require a gentle environment for rich development and blooming. Gentle environment during developing period (14.5°-28.6°C) incredibly works on blossoming while higher temperature (26.2°-
36.4°C) unfavorably influences blossom creation.
Marigold is versatile to various kinds of soil conditions and accordingly can develop effectively in a wide assortment of soils. Be that as it may, a profound, fruitful, friable soil having great water holding limit, all around depleted and close to impartial in response (pH 7.0 – 7.5) is generally alluring.
An ideal soil for Marigold development is fruitful and sandy topsoil.
Tagetes erecta (African Marigold)
Monster Double African Orange, Giant Double African Yellow, Crackerjack, Climax,
Doubloon, Golden Age, Chrysanthemum Charm, Crown of Gold, Spun Gold.
Tagetes patula (French Marigold)
Red Brocade, Rusty Red, Butterscotch, Valencia, Succana.
Brilliant Gem, Lulu, Pumila, Ursula. Nonetheless, in the market generally orange hued assortments are liked.
Nursery beds are entirely ready by burrowing and joining very much bad FYM.
Prior to planting the seeds, Malathion residue ought to be cleaned on the external side of nursery beds to keep away from insects.
Marigold is essentially spread by seeds, other than; it can likewise proliferate by cuttings.
Crops raised from seeds are tall, vivacious and weighty.
For raising seedling for one hectare, around 1.0 kg seed is required. For raising seedlings seeds can be planted in pots, seed boxes or on level or raised nursery beds.
Seeds ought to be planted meagerly and be covered with light soil or sand or sieved leaf shape; also watering ought to be finished by a fine nose. For cutting technique, 6-10 cm long cuttings are made from the apical piece of the shoot and treated with root advancing chemicals like IAA and IBA.
Cuttings planted in sand or vermiculite root effectively and established cutting are moved in beds or pots for blooming.
Mid July, mid-October and February-March are reasonable times for relocating. At the season of relocating they ought to be of 7 to 10 cm stature and bear 3-4 genuine leaves. Relocating ought to be done well to go land in the evening hours.
Tagetes erecta require 40 × 30 cm separating while T. patula require 20 × 20 cm or 20 × 10 cm separating for high return.
FYM is given @ 50 tons/ha at the hour of field planning. In African and French Marigold utilization of 400 kg N, 200 kg P and 60 kg K for every hectare ought to be finished.
Nitrogen ought to be given a few times during the development period.
The recurrence and amount of water principally relies on factors like soil and season.
In lighter soil, a more regular water system is needed than in weighty soil.
Week by week water system is important from September-March in sandy topsoil soil.
During late spring for a long time from April to June, successive water systems at a time frame of 5 days are required.
In Marigold creation, control of weeds is a significant activity.
In India, 3-4 manual weeding is needed for the whole period. Compound weed control is additionally suggested.
Red bug (Tetranychus sp.)
These bugs at some point show up on the plant close to blooming time.
Plants give a dusty appearance. It tends to be constrained by showering Metasystox 25 E C, or Rogor or Nuvacron 40 E C or on the other hand Ketone @ 1 ml/l of water.
Bushy caterpillar (Diacrisia diagonal)
This caterpillar destroys foliage. This caterpillar can be constrained by Nuvan or Thiodan at 1 ml/l of water.
It is brought about by Rhizoctonia solani and shows up as brown necrotic spots supporting the radicle, later on reaching out to plumule and pre-development mortality.
At the point when contaminated seedlings are pulled, the root framework shows up completely or somewhat rotted.
Seeds ought to be treated with Captan @ 3 g or Carbendazim @ 2.5 g per kilogram of seeds prior to planting.
It is brought about by various microorganisms and normal ones are Phytophthora sp.
Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium sp. Collar decay is caused either in nursery or in adult plants.
It can be forestalled by soil disinfection or by utilizing solid seedlings.
It is brought about by Alternaria dianthi.
The illness principally shows up on youthful bloom buds and brings about dry decaying of buds.
Indications are less conspicuous on mature buds however these buds fizzle to open.
To control this infection ordinary showering of the harvest with Dithane M-45 @ 0.2% ought to be followed.
1. Mention some Medicinal Uses of Tagetes?
Marigold is used for ulcers, stomach upset, menstrual period problems, eye infections, wound healings, and inflammations.
It is also antiseptic.
When the Marigold flower is rubbed on the affected part or wounds, it brings relief in pain and swelling when caused by a bee or wasp.
A lotion produced from the flowers is most useful for wounds and sprains, and a water distilled from them is good for sore eyes.
The infusion of freshly gathered flowers is a beneficial aspect of fever.
The Marigold or Tagetes flowers are mostly in demand for children ailment. Externally it is used for alopecia treatment.
It is used internally to treat kidney and bladder problems, uterine bleeding, blood in the urine, and many more.
2. Explain the Description, Classification, and Other Names of Tagetes?
Description It flowers from July to September. The scented flowers are hermaphrodite (have both female and male organs). It is frost tender and is hardy to zone 6. The lower leaves are broad and shaped in the spatula. Upper leaves may be smooth and oblong at the edges and are arranged alternately along the stem. The seeds are crescent to a horseshoe shape with a rough exterior. Its branching stem grows to a height of 30- 60 cm.
Other Names - A few of the other names used for the Marigold are Ganda, Caltha, Gols bloom, Garden Marigold, Holligold, Gold bloom, Marybud, Pot Marigold.