Difference Between Neurons and Neuroglia

What is Neuroglia?

Neuroglia refers to the supportive cells of the system. They supply the structural support to the neurons, and neuroglial cells provide oxygen and nutrients to the neuron cells. Many glial cells, like Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, are myelinated and are involved in delivering the electrical insulation through the axons. Different types of neuroglia found within the CNS and PNS.


Types And Functions Of Neuroglia

  • Astrocytes

The astrocytes are star-shaped neuroglia cells that function with numerous projections. The projections of astrocytes tightly hold the neurons and their synaptic ends. These projections attach the neurons to the blood capillaries, facilitating the transport of nutrients and oxygen. By recycling the neurotransmitters and balancing the amounts of ions, astrocytes regulate the external chemical environment of the neurons.

  • Oligodendrocytes

The oligodendrocytes are the cells that wrap around the axons of the neurons within the CNS. They need fewer projections than oligodendrocytes. The predictions of oligodendrocytes wrap several times around the axon. Since they possess several predictions, each screening wraps around the axons of several neurons. The formation of the case round the axon insulates the axons and reduces to the signal transduction through it.

  • Microglial Cells

The microglial cells were touching the neighboring neurons with thorny procedures. They're capable of detecting the injuries of the neurons and perform a phagocytic function by removing the neuron debris.

  • Ependymal Cells

The ependymal cells are found within the ventricles of the CNS. These cells function a permeable barrier between the underlying cells and, therefore, the humor (CSF). The movement of cilia within the ependymal cells are involved within the circulation of the CSF.


Neuroglia Cell Function Within The Peripheral System

  • Schwann Cells

The Schwann cells are functionally analogous to the oligodendrocytes within the CNS since they insulate the nerve axons. Additionally, Schwann cells are functionally similar to the microglial cells within the CNS, which clear the nerve debris. 

  • Satellite Cells

The satellite cells are functionally analogous to astrocytes within the CNS as both regulate the external environment of the neurons within the PNS. These cells are sensitive to injuries and produce chronic pain. 

  • Neuroglia Structure

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What are Neurons?

Neurons are the structural and functional units of the system in vertebrates and invertebrates upward from cnidarians. They're involved within the transition of electrical impulses, coordinating and controlling various functions of the body. Typically, a neuron consists of a cell body with an oversized nucleus. These granules are involved in protein synthesis. Long fibers called axons extend from the cell body, and axons carry nerve impulses removed from it. A bundle of nerve fibers forms a nerve.


Neurons Structure

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The three sorts of neurons within the body are sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. Both motor and sensory neurons are components of the PNS. The sensory neurons carry nerve impulses from the sensory organs to the CNS. The motor neurons carry nerve impulses from the CNS to the effector organ. The interneurons are found within the medulla spinalis, interconnecting the sensory and motor neurons at the neural structure. 


The Function of Neurons 

The human nervous system has trillions of neurons within the human body. These neurons' cell function is liable for activities that are traditionally thought of because of the activities of the brain. These are transmitted across the gap between neurons by the discharge and uptake of chemicals called neurotransmitters.


Difference Between Neurons and Neuroglia

  • Definition

Neurons: Neurons are the cells of the nervous system, which receive and transmit nerve impulses.

Neuroglia: Neuroglia is the supporting nervous system cells, which provides mechanical and structural support to neurons. It supplies nutrients and oxygen to neurons, and supplies electrical insulation through axons of the neuron.


  • Significance

Neurons: Neurons are the efficient unit of the nervous system.

Neuroglia: Neuroglia is the subsidiary cell of the neurons.


  • Granules

Neurons: Neurons have Nissl granules.

Neuroglia: Neuroglia doesn't have granules.


  • Axons

Neurons: The nerve impulses conduct by neurons with long, slender projections called axons.

Neuroglia: Neuroglia doesn't have axons. However, some neuroglia comprises small, slender projections.


  • Synapses

Neurons: Neurons form synapses between two neurons and between neurons and also the sensory or effector organs.

Neuroglia: Neuroglia doesn't form synapses.


  • Size

Neurons: Neurons are often 4 μm to 1 mm.

Neuroglia: Neuroglia are smaller than neurons.


  • Quantity

Neurons: Around 100 billion neurons are present within the frame.

Neuroglia: the quantity of neuroglia in higher vertebrates is 5 to 10 times the amount of neurons.


  • In a Mature System

Neurons: Most neurons are incapable of multiplying and differentiating in an exceedingly mature systema nervosum.

Neuroglia: Neuroglia, in a very mature system, is capable of multiplying by themselves.


  • With Age

Neurons: The number of neurons remains identical with age.

Neuroglia: The quantity of neuroglia is reduced with age.


  • Types

Neurons: The three forms of neurons are sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons.

Neuroglia: The neuroglia within the CNS are astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglial cells, and ependymal cells. The neuroglia within the PNS is Schwann cells and satellite cells.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What Are The Functions Of Neurons And Neuroglia?

Neurons and neuroglia are two styles of cells found within the system. Neurons are the structural and functional units of the nervous system. The three varieties of neurons are sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons. Neuroglia is the supportive cell of the system. They also help to provide nutrients and oxygen to the neurons. One in every of the most neuroglia cell functions is to insulate the nerve axons, increasing the speed of the transduction of the nerve impulses. Differing types of neuroglia will be found in CNS and PNS. The main difference between neurons and neuroglia is the structure and, therefore, the function of every sort of cell within the system.


2. What Is The Role Played By Neuronal Chemical And Electrical Signals In The Body?

The neuronal chemical and electrical signals operate as a communication system that orchestrates all of the functions of the system. Some samples of what the system controls are: -

  • Breathing

  • Metabolic control

  • Movement

  • Speech

  • Behaviour

  • Complex reasoning

  • Communication happens so rapidly that it seems instantaneous