Courses for Kids
Free study material
Offline Centres
Store Icon


share icon
share icon

Introduction to Angiotensin

Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that induces vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. It is a component of the renin-angiotensin system, which controls blood pressure. The Roman numerals represent the various types or forms of Angiotensin from I to IV. Now let's know what is Angiotensin in a detailed manner.

What is Angiotensin?

Angiotensinogen is a protein that the liver produces and secretes. Renin, a kidney-produced enzyme, then converts this to Angiotensin I. This type of hormone is also not known to have any biological role in and of itself, but it is a required precursor to Angiotensin II. It is further processed in the circulatory system by angiotensin-converting factor activity as it passes through the lungs and kidneys to generate Angiotensin II.

Angiotensin II has the cumulative impact of increasing heart rate, total hydration, plus salt intake. Angiotensin II has the following impacts:

Blood Vessels: It raises the heart rate by causing contraction (narrowing) of the blood vessels.

Nerves: It raises the perception of thirst and the appetite for salt and promotes the production from additional hormone secretion in Water retention.

Adrenal Glands: It promotes the synthesis of the hormonal aldosterone, causing the body to hold salt while releasing potassium through the kidneys.

The Kidney: It affects the renal by increasing salt storage, thus changing the manner the renal system filtrates blood. This produces an increase in renal fluid consumption, which boosts blood pressure.

How is Angiotensin Controlled?

Renin Angiotensin mechanism production increases in response to a decrease in salt content as well as a decrease in blood pressure, both of which are recognised by the kidneys. Furthermore, a low heart rate may stimulate the sympathetic nervous system to increase renin synthesis, which leads to an increase in the conversion of Angiotensin II to Angiotensin I, and so on.

Several hormones, including cortisol, estrone, and thyroxine, can stimulate the Renin-Angiotensin system. Natriuretic hormones, which are secreted in both the circulatory and neurological systems, have the potential to impede the Renin Angiotensin mechanism, increasing salt loss during urination. Renin angiotensin aldosterone system pdf would be helpful for you in knowing about it in a more detailed manner.

(Image will be uploaded soon)

What Happens if I Take too Much Angiotensin?

Excess angiotensin II is a frequent condition that results in the system retaining fluid buildup, resulting in hypertension as a consequence. It's common in cardiac arrest, when angiotensin 1 and 2 functions are, however, largely attributed to cardiac development. In the hospital, medications including angiotensin-converting protein antagonists or angiotensin antagonists are often given to treat severe complications, but they have few side effects as well and therefore could result in greater potassium accumulation (hyperkalaemia).

What Tends to Happen if I don't get enough Angiotensin?

Reduced angiotensin rates impair overall plasma salt content stabilization as well as systemic blood pressure administration. Angiotensin receptor insufficiency is associated with k storage, salt depletion, decreased water utilization (excessive fluid output), and hypotension.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) blockers are heart rate medications that effectively calm both arteries as well as veins. Blockers hinder the body's proteins in making angiotensinogen, a chemical that constricts capillaries. Hypertension can result from such a constriction, which pushes the pump to exert more effort. Angiotensin 1 and 2 functions additionally stimulate the production of arterial pressure-raising chemicals.

When Should One Use ACE Medications?

ACE inhibitors are being used to avoid, cure or help relieve effects in a variety of ailments, including:

  • Heart rate is too fast (hypertension)

  • Myocardial infarction 

  • Dysfunction of the heart

  • Diabetes

  • Some renal disorders

  • A stroke in the chest

  • A condition characterised by the hardness of the epidermis, including structural parts (scleroderma)

  • Headaches

An ACE inhibitor is often used alongside additional heart rate drugs, including a stimulant or calcium gate blocker. An ACE drug must not be used as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or even a straight renin inhibitor.

Adverse Consequences

Blockers can cause the following adverse reactions:

  • Coughing that is dry

  • Hyperkalemia occurs when the body's potassium concentration rises.

  • Nausea

  • Lightheadedness caused by a drop in heart tension

  • Hangovers

  • Sensory aversion

ACE inhibitors may cause severe tissue swelling (angioedema). If there is inflammation in the neck, it might even be fatal.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like aspirin (Paracetamol, Advil IB, and many others) and diclofenac salt (Aleve) reduce the efficacy of ACE blockers. Using such prescriptions on a rare occasion can have a negligible effect on how an ACE blocker functions. However, visit your physician if you often consume NSAIDs.

Consuming ACE inhibitors at the time of pregnancy raises the child's chance of congenital abnormalities. When you are expecting or intend to become pregnant, consult a physician regarding different ways to control hypertension.


This was all about the Angiotensin receptor. One should know all the properties and functions of the Angiotensin receptor if he is going to take such a drug. 

Want to read offline? download full PDF here
Download full PDF
Is this page helpful?

FAQs on Angiotensin

1. Does Angiotensin help to control stress?

Ans: Angiotensin II receptor blockers reduce blood pressure by relaxing veins and arteries, making it simpler for your heart to pump blood. Angiotensin is a hormone that causes your blood vessels to constrict. This constriction can raise your blood pressure and put more strain on your heart. Angiotensin II receptor blockers prevent angiotensin II from acting. As a result, your veins and arteries can enlarge as a result of the medicine (dilate). Besides treating high blood pressure, Angiotensin II receptor blockers may help prevent, treat, or alleviate symptoms in patients who have chronic kidney disease, which affects the kidneys, Insufficient heart or diabetic kidney failure.

2. Should I keep using drugs for a healthy heart rate?

Ans: Like any prescription drug, one must rarely avoid using an ACE blocker if the physician prescribes it to you. Whenever you actually feel improved, it could be enticing to not take the prescription. However, using the recommended medicine on a regular basis can assist in maintaining one's blood pressure at a reasonable level. If you are having adverse reactions, consult the physician before discontinuing the drug. These withdrawal symptoms might eventually fade away. The physician might even give you the necessary directions on how to stop using the drug. Drugs could be a valuable factor in retaining balance in the body as well as the heart.

Competitive Exams after 12th Science