Aldosterone Hormone

A hormone is any member of a category that belongs to the signalling molecules found in multicellular organisms, these are transported to distant organs in order to manage physiology and behaviour. 

Aldosterone is a part of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system. It has a plasma where the half-life is fewer than 20 minutes. Drugs that interfere with the secretion or action of aldosterone are in use as antihypertensives, such as lisinopril. This drug lowers the vital sign by blocking the ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme), that in turn results in lower aldosterone secretion. 

The net effect of those drugs scales back the sodium and water retention but increases retention of potassium. In other words, these drugs stimulate the excretion of sodium and water in urine, while they block the excretion of potassium.


What is Aldosterone?

Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid steroid produced by the zona glomerulosa of the cortex within the adrenal. It is essential for sodium conservation within the salivary glands, sweat glands, kidney, and colon. It plays a central role in the homeostatic regulation of blood pressure, plasma sodium (Na+), and potassium (K+) levels. It does so by working primarily on the mineralocorticoid receptors within the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the nephron. It influences the reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium of the kidney, thereby indirectly influencing the water loss or retention, blood pressure, and volume of blood. When the aldosterone is dysregulated, it is pathogenic and contributes to the event and progression of cardiovascular and renal disorder. Aldosterone has exactly the opposite function of the atrial natriuretic hormone that is secreted by the heart.


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Aldosterone Function

Aldosterone is that the primary of several endogenous members of the category of mineralocorticoids in humans. Deoxycorticosterone is another important member of this class. Aldosterone tends to Na+ and water retention, and lower the plasma K+ concentration by the subsequent mechanisms:

  • Acting on the nuclear mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) within the principal cells of the distal tubule and therefore the collecting duct of the kidney nephron, it upregulates and activates the basolateral Na+/K+ pumps, which pumps three sodium ions out of the cell, into the interstitial fluid and two potassium ions into the cell from the interstitial fluid. This creates a degree gradient that ends up in the reabsorption of sodium (Na+) ions and water through which sodium follows into the blood, and secreting potassium (K +) ions into the urine in the lumen of the collecting duct.

  • Aldosterone upregulates epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) within the collecting duct and therefore the colon, increasing apical membrane permeability for Na+ and thus absorption.

  • Cl- is reabsorbed in conjunction with sodium cations to take care of the system's electrochemical balance.

  • Aldosterone stimulates the secretion of K + into the tubular lumen.

  • Aldosterone stimulates Na+ and water reabsorption from the gut, salivary, and sweat glands in exchange for K+.

  • Aldosterone stimulates the secretion of H+ through the H+ or ATPase within the intercalated cells of the cortical collecting tubules

  • Aldosterone upregulates the expression of NCC within the distal convoluted tubule chronically and its activity acutely.


Aldosterone Synthesis

The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the zona glomerulosa of the cortex. Most steroidogenic reactions are catalyzed by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family. They are located within the mitochondria and need adrenodoxin as a cofactor except 21-hydroxylase and 17α -hydroxylase.

Aldosterone and corticosterone share a primary part of their biosynthetic pathways. The last parts are mediated either by the aldosterone synthase or by the 11 β -hydroxylase. These enzymes are nearly identical, but aldosterone synthase is additionally ready to perform an 18-oxidation. Moreover, aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the fringes of the adrenal cortex. 11 β -hydroxylase is found within the zona glomerulosa and zona fasciculata.

Aldosterone Synthesis is Stimulated by Several Factors:

  • It increases within the plasma concentration of angiotensin III, which is a metabolite of angiotensin II.

  • Increase in plasma angiotensin II, potassium levels, or ACTH, which are present in proportion to plasma sodium deficiencies. The extent of angiotensin II is regulated by angiotensin I, which is successively regulated by renin, which is a hormone secreted within the kidneys.

  • Serum potassium concentrations are the foremost potent stimulator of aldosterone secretion.

  • The ACTH stimulation test, which is usually wont to stimulate the assembly of aldosterone alongside cortisol to work out whether primary or secondary adrenal insufficiency is present. 

  • Plasma acidosis

  • The stretch receptors located within the atria of the guts. If decreased blood pressure is detected, the adrenal gland is stimulated by these stretch receptors to release aldosterone, which increases sodium reabsorption from the urine, sweat, and the gut. This causes increased osmolarity in the extracellular fluid, which will eventually return blood pressure to normal.

  • Adreno-glomerulo-tropin, which is a lipid factor, obtained from pineal extracts. It selectively stimulates the secretion of aldosterone.


Conclusion

Aldosterone affects the body's ability to manage vital signs. The role of aldosterone is to send the signal to organs, just like the kidney and colon, which will increase the quantity of sodium the body sends in to the bloodstream or the quantity of potassium released in the urine. Psychological stress also activates the sympathetic-adrenomedullary system which stimulates renin release resulting in increases in angiotensin II and aldosterone secretion. Aldosterone activates MR which successively may cause vascular injury and inflammation, and ultimately heart condition, renal disease, and stroke.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What is Aldosterone Hormone Function?

Ans: The aldosterone functions are as follows:

  • The main function is to increase the absorption of Na+ from the distal renal tubules.

  • Increases the excretion of K+ and H+ from the distal renal tubules.

  • It acts as a long-term regulator for blood pressure.

  • Decreases the Na+ content in the sweat or saliva or other secretions.

2. What is the Action of Aldosterone on the Heart?

Ans: The excess of aldosterone can cause hypertension. This has adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. This includes cardiac fibrosis and left ventricular hypertrophy. It can cause perivascular inflammation in the heart.