Agaricus bisporus is known to be one of the most familiar forms of mushrooms to humans. It is also the commercial form of mushroom that is sold in different grocery stores. People use this type of mushroom as a topping on their pizzas. There are different forms of the mushroom such as the bigger portobello version, the brown version, and the button version. An important thing to note about these versions is that they belong to the same particular species.
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The popularity of the mushroom isn’t due to the taste factor that it has but the level of commercial products that it goes through. The Agaricus bisporus mushroom does grow in different wild regions of the forest. However, the mushrooms that are sold commercially are a result of farming and cultivation. These mushrooms are produced in a controlled environment and medium such as underground structures or caves. This is due to the fact that the humidity and the temperature can be controlled in such areas. Read further to know more about the mushroom scientific name and other important details.
Agaricus bisporus along with other versions of fungi that belong to the same family can be classified as mushrooms. These forms produce the stalked structures and consist of a cap and belong to the group of Club Fungi also known as basidiomycete fungi. Most of the mushrooms tend to have certain gills underneath the cap and this is where the spores are created. Agaricus also shows this particular feature. Historically, all of the mushrooms that consisted of gills were put together in a particular taxonomic entity. However, there have been some advancements in the molecular analysis of the mushrooms that don’t classify the presence of gills as a very important feature.
Just like all versions of the club fungi, the structure of this particular mushroom forms with the network of several branching, unicellular filaments that are known as hyphae. These filaments tend to permeate the compost or soil where the mushroom is growing. In the case of club fungi, the filaments have a unicellular structure and this means there are certain individual cells present. These cells are delineated due to the presence of certain cross-walls or septa. While the septa aren’t complete, they have a particular pore situated in the middle which will allow the movement of cytoplasm from one cell to another cell.
The fruiting body provided to the mushroom Agaricus bisporus occurs due to the drastic change that is seen in the hyphae behavior. Instead of facilitating the growth in a diffusing manner and spreading all over the area, these structures tend to grow in close proximity and hence form an intertwining format. Hence, a solid structure is created from the substrate that will produce a similar assembly in the mushroom.
The mushroom Agaricus bisporus always completes the entire sexual cycle with the production of basidiospores that are present on the mushroom’s gills. Just like all the other versions of fungi present in the Basidiomycete group, this organism also exists primarily in a state of ‘dikaryon’. In this state, the cells possess two different nuclei. In certain locations of the fruiting body, the two nuclei tend to fuse together in order to create the diploid cell that undergoes the process of meiosis so that the haploid spores can be produced.
For the process of Agaricus bisporus cultivation, the reproduction process tends to be asexual in nature. Since the spores are not sown, the farmer will use certain pieces of mycelium which is the name of the hyphae. Then the mycelium will be induced into the ground for facilitating the growth process and stimulation so that the fruiting bodies can be created properly. Some parts of the mycelium remain and these can be used as a continuation of the process. One of the main properties of mycelium is that it can live up to a thousand years.
Just like other organisms, the interactions that take place between other organisms and the Agaricus bisporus mushroom in the physical environment are really important for growth success. The commercial growth of the mushroom can be considered as one of the most important examples of this interaction. Agaricus is also called a ‘secondary decomposer’. This means it will feed on the material that consumes it. Another process that is similar to this is the interaction between the cows as well as the microorganisms inside their bodies.
The mushroom scientific name is Agaricus bisporus. Agaricus bisporus is a commercial mushroom that belongs to the club fungi group and it is mostly cultivated through farming processes because of its use in the food industry.
1. What are some of the properties of the Agaricus bisporus mushroom?
The botanical name of mushroom that belongs to this kind is Agaricus bisporus. The cap of the mushroom is 2.5-14 cm in diameter. The shape of the cap is convex and seems to be round at first sight. The structure is nearly flat or broadly convex. The cap has pressed-down fibers as well as certain small scales. Some cultivated varieties of Agaricus bisporus have a white-colored cap while there are some others where the color of the cap is brown. In other varieties, there is a reddish to pinkish tint in the mushroom when it is properly rubbed. The gills are produced free from the stem and are short in size. The color of the gills is pink at first but turns dark brown or black with time. The stem of the mushroom is 2-7cm long and 1-2.5 cm thick.
2. Write a note on the ecology of Agaricus bisporus.
Agaricus bisporus is mostly scattered on pizzas and is used in salads as well. This type of mushroom is commercially sold in clusters at different grocery stores. The cultivation happens by scattering the mushroom on manured soils as well as compost piles that are situated in lawns. There are some native species of mushrooms that tend to be cultivated in the Coastal regions of California. While the mushroom can be found in the wild, there are other more controlled environments where they are grown. This is due to the fact that the temperature, as well as the humidity levels in such places, can be controlled easily and hence can lead to better growth of the mushrooms.