Pests are any organism that is judged as a threat to the life of human beings or to their interests. When the early man hunted animals and searched widely for food, he shared the available natural resources with other organisms that are present in the community. As human culture developed and the population rose, demands of the people increased based on these resources. One of the results of changing the environment has been a great way to increase the number of species that are now considered as competitors of humans. These competitors are usually referred to as pests. An ecologist will not consider several leaf-eating caterpillars found on a plant necessarily as pests, whereas a gardener who is cultivating the plant might do so. And only one bat or rat is enough to qualify as a household pest.
Pests are found in the animal kingdom. Microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, and viruses are even though they are usually thought of as agents of disease, they are considered as pests. Most of the types of vermin pests are invertebrates among them, are nematodes, protozoa, slugs, flatworms, snails, insects, and mites. Among the vertebrates, rabbits, deer, and many kinds of rodents are sometimes injurious to crops.
Vermin or varmit are pests or nuisance animals that can spread diseases or destroy crops or livestock. Since the term is defined in relation to the activities that are related to humans, which species are included vary by region and enterprise. The term vermin is derived from the Latin word vermis which means worm and was originally it is used for the worm-like larvae of certain insects, many of which infest foodstuffs.
The term "vermin" is used to refer to a wide scope of organisms, vermin examples include rodents, termites, cockroaches, bed bugs, mosquitoes, sables, ferrets, stoats, rats, and occasionally foxes. Historically, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the expression derogatory term also became associated with groups of persons who are typically plagued by vermin, namely beggars and vagabonds, and more generally the poor people.
The disease-carrying rodents and insects are the usual cases, but this term is also applied to larger animals which are especially small predators typically. Because they can consume resources that humans consider such as livestock and crops. Birds that eat cereal crops and fruit are an example of predators. The American crow is widely hated by all the farmers because of crop depredation. Pigeons are also sometimes considered as vermin which have been introduced widely in urban environments. Some of the varieties of snakes and arachnids may also be sometimes referred to as vermin.
Vermin Life Cycle
Schistosoma mansoni life cycle involves both an aquatic snail intermediate and a human definitive host. Mice and hamsters can be used to maintain their life cycle in the laboratory. Males are broad pink and red in nature and females are skinny pink in nature. The adult worms are found in the venules draining of the intestine. Eggs can pass through the intestine and out of the body with faeces. The eggs that hatch in the freshwater are motile in nature and the miracidia actively search for the snails. The miracidia get penetrated into the snail host, miracidia starts to differentiate as sporocysts. Sporocysts then proliferate asexually in the host body eventually, it releases the motile clonal cercariae into the water. These cercariae can penetrate into the unbroken skin of a mammalian host. Then from there, it migrates to the hepatic portal system through the bloodstream where they develop in the form of adults. In the laboratory, the entire life cycle takes about 75 to 90 days to complete. S. mansoni is a conventional dioecious diploid within the snail intermediate host except for the fact that larval forms replicate asexually. This aids in the staging of genetic crosses because the clonally generated larvae of males and females from the different snails can be used to infect mice.
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Increase of List of Vermin in Nature
Natural communities always contain organisms that were economically significant such as locusts. Most of the species that became pests are happened so because of the certain environmental modification that occur occasionally from natural causes but usually from human activities.
In order to appreciate some of the methods that are devised to combat the pests, one should consider that how the advancing technology has increased the population of harmful insect species. The change from the natural vegetation to the large areas of single-crop agriculture has three consequences.
First, some plant-eating species increase from small to large populations given a more uniform food source.
Second, the uniform plant cover is easily invaded by attacking pests.
Third, the introduction of the new crops over larger areas results in the transformation of previously harmless insects from the scattered native plants to the new and abundant sources of food.
Cultural practices such as irrigation, fertilization, and the use of modern techniques for harvesting equipment which often leaves a large amount of plant litter in the field further still enhances the ability of pest species to increase them rapidly. In addition to this, the elimination of species that can compete with or prey upon pests as an unintended effect in some pest control programs has also caused certain pest problems. Also, the ease with which people and goods can be transported around the world has resulted in the introduction of exotic pests in many of the places.
Vermin Insects Control
Insects are also considered serious pests because some of them can play an essential role in the transmission of the diseases. Each year millions of lives, particularly in the region of the tropics, are threatened by certain insect-borne diseases. Mosquitoes can transmit malaria and yellow fever, plague is transmitted by fleas, typhus is transmitted by the human louse, sleeping sickness can be caused by tsetse flies, Chagas disease is caused by blood-sucking bugs, and leishmaniasis is caused by sandflies. Other diseases may be spread by insects accidentally as a result of their habits in order to control these diseases certain measures are to be taken for each type of killer vermins.
Cockroaches: Cockroaches have become well adapted to living with and near humans, and their hardiness is legendary. Controlling cockroaches may become a most difficult task for homeowners because of the time and the special knowledge often these pests involve. The cockroach is considered a source of an allergen and an asthma trigger for the residents. Although there is little evidence that exists to link the cockroach to certain specific disease outbreaks, it has been demonstrated to carry the bacteria or viruses such as Salmonella typhimurium, Entamoeba histolytica, and the poliomyelitis virus.
Four Management Strategies That Exist for Controlling the Cockroaches are:
The first is prevention, this strategy includes the inspection of items that are being carried into the home and the sealing cracks and crevices found in kitchens, bathrooms, exterior doors, and windows. Certain structural modifications would include weather stripping and pipe collars.
The second strategy is sanitation, this denies the cockroaches to find food, water, and shelter. These efforts include quickly cleaning of the food particles from the shelving and floors where timely washing of the dinnerware, and routine cleaning under the refrigerators, furniture, stoves, and similar areas. If pets are fed in the house, pet food should be stored in tight containers and these should not be left in bowls overnight.
The third strategy is trapping, the commercially available traps can be used to capture the roaches and serve as a monitoring device. The most effective trap placement for the roaches is against the vertical surfaces, corners, under sinks, cabinets, basements, and floor drains.
The fourth strategy is chemical control, the use of chemicals can typically indicate that the other three strategies have been used incorrectly. Numerous insecticides are available as an option and appropriate information is obtainable from EPA.
Fleas: The most important fleas that act as disease vectors are those that can carry murine typhus and bubonic plague. In addition to this, the fleas serve as an intermediate host for certain species of dog and rodent tapeworms that can occasionally infest people. They also may act as an intermediate host for the filarial worms in dogs.
Following are Some of the Guidelines Used for Controlling the Fleas:
The most important principle used in a total flea control program is treating simultaneously by all pets and their environments both indoors and outdoors.
Before using the insecticides, clean the environment thoroughly, regardless of the form removing as many fleas as possible. This would include vacuuming and carpet steam cleaning indoors. Special attention should be paid to certain source points where the pets spend most of their time.
The insecticide should be applied to indoor and outdoor environments and to pets.
Reapplication of the insecticides to the heavily infested source points in the home and the yard may be needed to eliminate the pre-emerged adults.
Flies: The historical attitude of Western society towards flies has been one of the aesthetic disdain. The public health view is to classify the flies as biting or nonbiting. Biting flies include horseflies, sandflies, and deerflies whereas the nonbiting flies include bottleflies, houseflies, and screwworm flies. The latter group of flies is often referred to as synanthropic because of their close association with humans. In general, the presence of flies in the environment is a sign of poor sanitation.
The housefly control is hinged on good sanitation by denying the food sources and breeding sites to the fly. This includes the proper disposal of food wastes by placing the garbage in cans with certain close-fitting lids. Cans are to be washed periodically and cleaned to remove food debris. The disposal of garbage in properly operated sanitary landfills is paramount to fly control.
Mosquitoes: Mosquito-borne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, have plagued civilization for thousands of years. New threats from the diseases caused by mosquitoes include Lyme disease and West Nile Virus. Organized mosquito control present in the United States has greatly reduced the incidence of these diseases. However, the mosquitoes can still transmit a few diseases, including eastern equine encephalitis and St. Louis encephalitis. The frequency and extent of these diseases depend on a complex series of factors.
Measures to Control Mosquito Population:
Dispose of the unwanted tin cans and tires.
Cleaning the clogged roof gutters and the drain flat roofs.
Turn over the unused wading pools and some other containers that tend to collect the rainwater.
Change the water in the birdbaths, fountains, and troughs twice a week.
Clean and chlorinate the swimming pools.
Cover the containers tightly with a window screen or plastic screen when storing the rainwater for garden use during drought periods.
Flush the sump-pump pits weekly, and stock ornamental pools with fish.
Difference Between Rodents, Pests and Vermin
It may seem that rodents, vermin and pests all present in the same category but some of them would be surprised to find that not all are treated alike. Because of this, your rodent-vermin-pest problem will be handled differently.
Rodents are considered as one of the largest and the most successful order groups of mammals that are making up nearly about 40% of all mammal species. They are characterized by having a single pair of incisors that can continuously grow in both their upper and lower jaws. Forming the order Rodentia they are included but are not limited to mice, rats, porcupines, squirrels, hamsters, and their relatives. Rabbits, hares, and pikas are to be classified within the group of mammals but because they have two other extra incisors in their upper jaw, thus they are now classified into a separate order called Lagomorpha.
Vermin is a word that is used in relation to human activities that include any animal, insect or parasitic worm that spreads disease, can destroy crops, or can kill livestock. Vermin is a matter of semantics. Other creatures are classified as vermin are fleas, cockroaches, worms, deer, mice, rabbits, raccoons, mountain lions, opossum, coyote, wolves, etc. Though insects and rodents can be termed vermin, they can still be classified by species within their own categories.
Pests can be any animal or insect that can cause harm or damage to humans, forestry, livestock, or crops. There are pests that sting, pests that bite, and pests that are known to infest foods, fabric, and wood. Even animals or insects that humans simply don’t want to invade their space are considered pests. Some of the pests that can bite and sting include ants, fleas, spiders, lice, mosquitos, ticks, and bed bugs. Pests that can infest clothing or fabric, as well as food, include silverfish, cockroaches, moths, ants, centipedes, carpet bugs, and dust mites. Pests that are involved in destroying wood are carpenter ants, termites, and wood-boring beetles. All of these and some more are considered pests so one can clearly see how vastly the term pest is considered amongst many of the species.
Since the days of the earliest inhabitants of the world, pests and humans have known to be co-existed. However, certain methods of keeping the pests in their place have been varied widely and these are evolved over time. Now more than ever, it is more critical to make thoughtful and appropriate changes in order to sustain positive outcomes. In order to protect the livestock, environment, and human-related problems identification of the correct type of pests is required to find a solution to eradicate them.