Urinary Bladder

Dhristi NEET 2022-24

A brief overview of Urinary Bladder

The urinary bladder is a delicate organ of our body, which serves the function of storing urine or waste fluids that come out of the Kidneys. It is a vital organ that can cause trouble, like a stone in the urinary bladder, when not taken proper care of. Situated at the pelvis, near the pubic bone, it is a sac-like structure that facilitates the flow of the urine through expansion and contraction.

We shall focus on the structure of the urinary bladder through a urinary bladder diagram and also try to understand its various parts.


What is the Urinary Bladder?

The urinary bladder is a part of the urinary system that is concerned with the removal of waste products from the body through the medium of urine and the facilitation of blood purification. It is somewhat triangular and has a hollow within itself to allow urine storage. Its features are:

  • Urinary bladder capacity: It has an average capacity of 500 ml, which can vary from individual to individual.

  • Contraction and expansion: The muscles in the bladder contract and expand according to the need to facilitate retention or excretion.

  • Storage time: Generally, a person can hold urine for 5 hours. With more practice, it can extend to 7- 8 hours. However, it is not advisable to do so.

  • Location: It is located in the lower abdomen, near the pubic bone.


Parts and Structure of Urinary Bladder


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The urinary bladder has the following parts and structures.

  • The transitional epithelium layer: This is the initial sheath that surrounds the inside of the bladder. This lining tends to expand when the bladder is filled with urine.

  • Lamina Propia: Lamina propia has nerve endings, adipocytes, fibrocytes, and interstitial cells. They jointly create a matrix.

  • Muscularis propia layer: It is elastic like a muscle which is also known as a detrusor. It is thick and smooth and is situated beside the Lamina Propia.

Other parts include the perivesical tissue that is composed of fat and blood vessels. It acts as a segregation between the bladder and kidneys. The tubes of the ureter are attached to the bladder directly.

Moreover, the bladder consists of sphincters of two types which act as valves to control the urine flow. The detrusor muscles act to contract them during important situations like continence. If you want to have a clearer view of the structure of the urinary bladder, take a look at the urinary bladder diagram.


Stone in Urinary Bladder

Sometimes, minerals of the urine can start to form a stone inside the bladder. Under inadequate care, they crystallize inside and disrupt the regular flow of urine, thereby causing extreme pain. A major symptom is the inability to urinate. Some other symptoms of having a stone in the urinary bladder are:

  • Severe to moderate pain in the lower abdomen,

  • Painful urination

  • Blood in urine

  • Extreme discomfort during urination

  • Peculiar coloured urine that is generally dark.

Smaller stones can be treated with medicines. However, when the stones grow out of control, an operation is the only way out. These stones can be prevented by consuming adequate and clean water every day. Additionally, one should not control urine for extreme durations for long.

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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What Is Urinary Bladder?

After the urine is filtered through the kidneys, the required ions are reabsorbed if physiologically needed through feedback mechanisms located in the body and in the nephrons of the kidneys, such as the macula densa, the urinary bladder collects the urine to be voided through urination. The transitional epithelium lines the urinary bladder, which does not contain mucus.

2. What are the Main Functions of the Human Urinary System?

The main functions of the human urinary system to keep us healthy are as follows:

  • Remove all waste and medications from your body.

  • The fluids in the body are kept in balance.

  • A number of electrolytes are balanced.

  • Hormones are released to regulate blood pressure.

  • To regulate red blood cell activity by releasing necessary hormones.

  • Controlling calcium and phosphorus to help with bone health.

3. What are the Main Causes of Urinary Bladder Inflammation and Infections?

A variety of factors can increase your chances of having a bladder infection, including:

  • Sexual contact on a regular basis.

  • Birth control with a diaphragm and spermicide.

  • Diabetes can increase the chances of urinary bladder infection.

  • In the last 12 months, you have had any bladder or kidney infection.

  • Urinary System Alterations.

4. What is the main function of the urinary bladder? Why is it important?

The main function of the urinary bladder is to allow us to have some control over our urination. It acts as a reservoir for the urine and maintains a contracted state for hours to prevent untimely leakage. Since one cannot control the pace of the kidneys, the bladder helps us have some degree of control over the discharge of urine according to our convenience. 

The bladder consists of muscle tissue sheaths that hold the urine by expanding. On average, the urinary bladder capacity is between 400 to 600 millilitres. When it is time to release the urine, the sphincter, which are valves, opens to let the urine out. This is done through the facilitation of other muscles.

The bladder is highly essential to control the amount of waste and extra fluids within the body. However, with advances in medical sciences, one can learn to live after the emergency removal of the bladder with an ample amount of rehabilitation.

5. How is a urinary bladder distended? How is it treated?

A distended urinary bladder occurs when an individual is unable to release urine at will regularly. The individual experiences urine retention alongside pain and a sensation of inflammation.

There can be different reasons why the bladder is distendedOne of them is ageing. With age, the bladder can lose its tone and hence obstruct the voluntary process. However, the usual cause is an infection in the bladder that swells it up. Moreover, it can be a side effect of anaesthesia, diabetes, or obesity.

With the urinary bladder distended, the most effective solution is undergoing surgery. During the surgery, the doctor removes whatever mass is causing the bloating and obstructing the flow of urine. Medicines, according to the subscription of the doctor, can help in the treatment. Additionally, physical therapy helps in rehabilitation after the surgery.

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