Macro is a word that originated from the Greek word makros which means large.
Examples of Root Words Starting with Macro
Let us discuss examples of root words starting with macro terms one by one.
Macrophage- macrophage is a good example of Biology Root Words for Macro. It is the second-largest in size and second maximum in number. It is amoeboid in shape with a bean or kidney-shaped nucleus. The quantity of the cytoplasm is more in this type of white blood cells. In this cell cytoplasm is agranular but due to the presence of more lysosomes, it appears granular. They are phagocytic in nature. They destroy bacteria and viruses by phagocytosis. They arise by the fusion of monocytes. These cells are phagocytic in nature. Therefore, called phagocytic cells. These cells are also called scavenger cells of connective tissue because they destroy dead or damaged cells to clean connective tissue.
Macrophages of the lungs are called dust cells.
Macrophages of the liver are called kupffer cells.
Macrophages of blood cells are known as monocytes.
Macrophages of the brain are known as microglial cells.
Macrophages of the thymus gland are known as hessel’s granules.
Macrophages of the spleen are known as reticular cells.
In response to pathogenic infection, the total count of WBC in the body increases. Phagocytosis is exhibited by some types of WBC’s such as WBC's are called phagocytes. The most important phagocytes are macrophages and neutrophils. Monocytes are liberated at the site of infection these later convert into macrophages.
Steps of Phagocytosis-
Vasodilation- at the site of entry, increased diameter of blood vessels.
Adhesion- accumulation of leukocytes at the periphery of blood vessels due to decreased blood flow.
Diapedesis- now the leukocytes migrate from the blood vessel by active movements into the extracellular fluid. This kind of active movement of the cell is called diapedesis.
Chemotaxis- now these leukocyte cells move towards the pathogen by chemotactic movement. This movement is active in nature.
Phagocytosis- it consists of three steps
Attachment- the infective agent gets attracted to the membrane of the phagocytes.
Ingestion- Phagocyte engulfs the particular material into a vacuole. The membrane of which fuses with the lysosomes forming a phagolysosome. The lysosome contains hydrolytic enzymes and other bacterial substances.
Intracellular killing- Most bacteria are slaughtered in the phagolysosomes by the hydrolytic enzymes within a few minutes of phagocytosis.
Macronutrients- Macronutrient is an example of Biology Root Words for Macro. Nutrients are of two types. Micronutrients and macronutrients. The macronutrients are required by the plants in more amounts. Its requirement is about one to ten mg/g. The requirements for the micronutrients are around 0.1 to 1 mg/g. Macronutrients can be divided into three types:
Structural Nutrients- structural nutrients help in the formation of plant structures. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are the main structural macronutrients.
Primary Nutrients- nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are the main primary macronutrients. These nutrients help in performing the major function of the plants. Potassium helps in regulating the function of the enzyme.
Secondary Nutrients- calcium, magnesium, and sulphur are the main secondary nutrients. Sulphur generally helps in amino acid formation.
Macrocephaly- Macrocephaly is the condition in which an overly large head is present than the normal size. This situation generally occurs as a symptom of complications or conditions in the brain. There is a standard criterion that is used to define macrocephaly. when the circumference of a person’s head is more than two standard deviations above average for their age. Or the head of the macrocephalic person is larger than the 98th percentile.
Macronucleus- A macronucleus is also known as meganucleus. The size of the macronucleus is larger than the normal nucleus size. It is generally found in ciliates. The ploidy of the macronuclei is polyploid. Macronuclei can undergo direct division without mitosis. It performs a major role in controlling the non-reproductive cell functions, like metabolism. Macronucleus affects the activity of many cells. It is found in suctorian types of protozoans and ciliate types of protozoans. A macronucleus is the larger type of nucleus in ciliates.
Macrocytic Cells- Macrocytosis is a process that is used to define the red blood cells that are larger than normal. Due to vitamin B12 deficiency, RBC becomes larger in size called macrocytes. These are immature RBC that are destroyed in the spleen. In this type of RBC amount of haemoglobin is normal. These cells are also known as melanocytosis or microcythemia, this condition typically causes no signs or symptoms and is usually detected incidentally on routine blood tests complications. Most cases of macrocytic anaemia can be treated easily and be cured with diet and supplements. However, if macrocytic anaemia persists for a long time, it can cause long-term complications if left untreated. These complications can include permanent damage to the nervous system.
Did You Know?
Sinus histiocytes are the type of macrophage found in lymph nodes.
The macrophage can be divided into two types; M1 and M2.
Protein, nucleic acid, lipid, carbohydrates, polyamides are examples of root words starting with macro.