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Reproductive System Diseases

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What do you Mean by Reproductive Diseases?

Reproductive system diseases are any of the diseases and disorders affecting the reproductive system in humans. Irregular hormone production by the ovaries or testes, as well as other endocrine glands such as the pituitary, thyroid, or adrenals, are among them. Genetic or congenital defects, infections, tumours, or disorders of unknown source can all cause these diseases.

What are Reproductive Disorders?

Reproductive disorders are diseases that affect the reproductive system, such as infections of the reproductive tract, congenital anomalies, reproductive system malignancies, and sexual dysfunction.

Human Reproductive System

Male Reproductive System: The male reproductive system is made up of several sex organs that are involved in human reproduction. These organs can be found on the outside of the body as well as within the pelvic.

The penis and testicles are the main male sex organs, which are prone to various male reproductive system diseases as they generate semen and sperm, which fertilise an ovum in the female's body during sexual intercourse; the fertilised ovum (zygote) grows into a foetus, which is eventually born as a newborn.

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Female Reproductive System: The internal and external sex organs that operate in the reproduction of new offspring make up the female reproductive system. The female reproductive system in humans is immature at birth and matures at puberty in order to produce gametes and carry a foetus to full term. 

The uterus, Fallopian tubes, and ovaries are the internal sex organs. The genitals, often known as the external sex organs, are the organs of the vulva, which include the labia, clitoris, and vaginal entrance. At the cervix, the vagina connects to the uterus. Both the internal and external organs are prone to various female reproductive system diseases.

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Male Reproductive System Diseases

Some Disorders of the Male Reproductive System are -

  1. Hypospadias - The external urinary meatus (opening) opens anywhere below the tip of the penis rather than at the tip of this disease.

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  1. Hydrocele - A fluid-filled sac that partially encircles the testis A swelling on the side of the scrotum is the most common symptom. It's possible that this will make you uncomfortable. Surgical correction is possible.

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  1. Varicocele - Testis veins that are dilated and twisted, like scrotal “haemorrhoids”! It appears as a bulge on the side of the scrotum that resembles a "bag of worms" in appearance and feel. If the condition is causing discomfort, it may be surgically repaired. Due to sluggish blood flow, which raises testicular warmth, this condition might result in a lower sperm count and male infertility.

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  1. Cryptorchidism - A condition in which one or both testes do not descend into the scrotum. If not treated before puberty, usually through surgery, it can lead to sterility and an increased risk of testicular cancer.

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  1. Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) - The prostate gland, which surrounds the base of the male bladder and urethra, swells, producing urination difficulty, dribbling, and nocturia. The scourge of the elderly! As men get older, BPH becomes more common.

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  1. Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP) - BPH can be treated surgically. To remove urinary tract obstruction, a device inserted through the penile urethra is used to partially chop away the prostate.

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  1. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) - PSA is a protein that can be discovered in prostate cell secretions using a lab test. An increasing PSA level could be a precursor to prostate cancer.

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Female Reproductive System Diseases

  1. Endometriosis - A syndrome characterised by the colonisation of the abdominal/pelvic cavity with endometrial tissue islands. The endometrium is the uterine lining that sheds off with each menstruation. If endometrial tissue flushes up the uterine tube and spills into the abdomen (peritoneal cavity), endometrial tissue clots can adhere to abdominal organs such as the bladder, rectum, and intestinal loops, and then cycle with the uterus in response to monthly ovarian hormone fluctuations. The peritoneum, the lining membrane of the belly, is irritated by bleeding into it, causing abdominal pain.

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  1. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)- The female abdominal cavity has a direct anatomical path from the outside world via the female reproductive canal, whereas males have a closed abdominal cavity. Bacteria can travel up the vaginal canal, into the uterus, and into the abdominal cavity via the uterine tubes. Abdominal discomfort is caused by inflammation of the peritoneum, the lining of the abdominal cavity. PID can be caused by a variety of factors, one of which being gonorrheal infection. Chronic uterine tube inflammation can obstruct them, leading to infertility.

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  1. Prolapsed Uterus- The uterus is nearly parallel to the vaginal opening. In fact, the uterus's cervix, or neck area, reaches into the upper vagina. Ligaments keep the uterus in place so it doesn't prolapse or herniate into the vaginal canal. The uterine cervix can protrude from the vaginal opening in severe prolapse. To return the uterus to its proper anatomical position, surgery is usually required.

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Reproductive Tract Infections

Infections of the reproductive tract, which is part of the reproductive system, are known as reproductive tract infections (RTI). Reproductive tract infections can affect both the upper and lower reproductive tracts in women (fallopian tubes, ovary, and uterus), as well as the vaginal, cervix, and vulva in men (penis, testicles, urethra, and vas deferens). Endogenous infections, iatrogenic infections, and sexually transmitted infections are the three forms of reproductive tract infections. Each has its own set of symptoms and causes, which are caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other organisms.

Congenital Disorders of the Reproductive System Include the Following:

  • Kallmann syndrome is a genetic condition characterised by a lack of one or both testes in the scrotum, resulting in impaired functioning of the sex hormone-producing glands.

  • Androgen insensitivity syndrome is a genetic disease that causes genetically masculine (XY chromosomal pair) people to develop sexually as females due to an inability to use androgen.

  • Intersexuality is defined as having genitalia and/or other sexual characteristics that are not obviously male or female.

The Following are Some Examples of Reproductive System Functioning Issues:

  • Impotence is defined as a man's inability to develop or maintain an erection.

  • Hypogonadism is a lack of gonad function, either in terms of hormone production or gamete generation.

  • When a fertilised ovum is implanted in a tissue other than the uterine wall, it is called an ectopic pregnancy.

  • Female sexual arousal problem is a condition in which females have less, insufficient, or no lubrication during the sexual engagement.

  • A lack of voluntary control over ejaculation causes premature ejaculation.

  • Dysmenorrhea is a medical disorder that causes pain during menstruation and makes daily tasks difficult.

Examples of Cancers of the Reproductive System Include:

  • Prostate cancer 

  • Breast cancer 

  • Ovarian cancer 

  • Penile cancer 

  • Uterine cancer 

  • Testicular cancer 

  • Cervical cancer 

  • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

Rare Reproductive System Diseases

Turner’s Disease: Turner syndrome (TS), commonly known as 45, X or 45, X0, is a genetic disorder in which a female's X chromosome is partially or entirely absent. The signs and symptoms differ depending on who is affected. Short and webbed necks, low-set ears, a low hairline at the back of the neck, short height, and swollen hands and feet are also common birth characteristics. Typically, they can only have menstrual periods and breasts with hormone therapy, and they are unable to produce children without it. Heart problems, diabetes, and low thyroid hormone levels are more common. The majority of people with TS are intelligent; yet, many struggle with spatial vision, which is required for mathematics. vision and hearing problems may occur.

Asherman’s Syndrome: Asherman's syndrome is a uterine gynaecological condition that is acquired. It is defined by the bonding of scar tissue that borders the uterine walls, resulting in a reduction in the uterine cavity's volume. Intrauterine adhesions or synechiae are uterine scar tissue that joins together as a result of surgical scraping or cleaning of tissue from the uterine wall (dilatation and curettage [D and C]), endometrial infections (e.g., genital TB), or other reasons.

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FAQs on Reproductive System Diseases

1. What are Some Common Female Reproductive System Diseases Symptoms?

Ans) Some Common Female Reproductive System Diseases Symptoms are:

  • Mild abdominal or pelvic discomfort

  • Urination on a regular basis.

  • Urge to urinate is a strong feeling.

  • A feeling of pressure in the abdomen or pelvis.

  • Sensitivity.

  • Intense discomfort in the bladder or pelvic area.

2. What are the 4 Causes of Female Infertility?

Ans) Some causes of female infertility are-

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): PCOS causes a hormone imbalance, which affects ovulation.

  • Hypothalamic dysfunction. 

  • Premature ovarian failure.

  • Too much prolactin.

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