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Uterus and Its Function

We all know that the female reproductive system is known for its versatility in functions as it produces egg cells,  termed as ova, that are important for the reproduction process. The female reproductive system is used to deliver the ova to the point of fertilization

The fallopian tube is a site where fertilization takes place and the uterus is the place where implantation of zygote takes place. Along with that, the female reproductive system also produces various hormones which are useful for the proper functioning of the reproductive system. 

The female reproductive system is made up of different parts: oviducts, vagina, cervix, uterus, and the external genitalia that are located in the pelvic region.

Let us learn more about the female uterus, uterus structure and function.

Human Uterus Structure

The female uterus is also known as a womb, it looks like an inverted pear-shaped muscular organ and is considered a major part of the female reproductive system. It is found located between the bladder and the rectum. One of the major functions of the uterus is to nourish and house a fertilized egg until the fetus, or offspring is ready to be delivered. 

It is further divided into three regions, the fundus, the body of the uterus, and the cervix. The fundus part is a broad curved upper area where fallopian tubes connect to the uterus whereas the isthmus is the lower part. The narrow neck region and cervix extend towards the isthmus until it opens into the vagina. The size of the uterus is about six to eight cm long and the thickness of its wall is approx two to three cm. Whereas their width varies from female to female, the average width of the ovary is approx six cm at the fundus and only half this distance at the isthmus. The cavity of the uterus that is the uterine cavity opens into the vagina known as the vaginal cavity and both of them combine to make up the birth canal. 

Different Regions of the Uterus

The human uterus which is also known as the womb is considered a major reproductive part of the female reproductive system and it is where the growth of the baby takes place. The uterus is situated in between the bladder and rectum and above the vagina. It is hollow from the inside and muscular in nature. It is further divided into three parts, they are:

  1. The Fundus: This is the upper part of the uterus. 

  2. The main part of the uterus is the body and includes the uterine cavity.

  3. The cervix: It is the lowermost part and narrow part of the uterus.

Different Layers of Uterine Wall

The Wall of the uterus is made up of three layers, they are: 

  1. The Endometrium: It is the innermost layer of the uterus. It is made up of glandular cells that do secretion processes. 

  2. The Myometrium: this is the middle and thickest layer of the uterus wall and is made up of smooth muscles and has the power to bear pressure.

  3. The Perimetrium: It is the outermost serous layer of the uterus.  It is known to be a serous layer because it secretes a lubricating fluid that helps to reduce friction. 

What Does the Uterus Do?

The uterus performs various important functions, some of the primary function of uterus are listed below:

  1. The uterus lies in the pelvis behind the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum. The uterus is a pear-shaped muscular organ. It helps in the nurturing of the fertilized ovum which further develops into the fetus and holds inside it till the baby is mature enough for birth. 

  2. The uterus provides structural integrity and support to the bladder, bowel, pelvic bones, and organs as well. It separates the bladder and the bowels. The uterus is needed for the uterine orgasm to occur. 


Hence it is conclusive that the uterus plays a major in the female reproductive system, and if this important structure is been removed from the female body it will be impossible to carry the baby, the menstrual cycle stops, some may also get affected with the cardiovascular diseases, neurologic disease, and premature death. In some women, it is necessary to remove the uterus only in the case of morbidities such as cancer. The procedure is called a hysterectomy. 

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FAQs on Uterus

1. What Does the Uterus Do?

Ans. The fertilized ovum develops into an embryo and the whole development of the fetus takes place inside the uterus. It provides structural support to the bowel, bladder, and other organs and it also provides structural integrity to the organs.

2. What are the Regions of the Uterus?

Ans. The uterus is further divided into three regions:

  • Fundus: It is the top of the uterus.

  • Body: The body of the uterus functions as the main part of the uterus, which includes the uterine cavity. 

  • Cervix: It is the lower and narrower part of the uterus.