Testes are present in human males. They are present in a pair. They are formed from the mesoderm of the endoderm. They are located in the scrotal sac and this sac is present outside the abdominal cavity. This scrotal sac is known as the scrotum. This scrotum is responsible for the production of sperms because sperms require 2-3 degree celsius less temperature than the body. These testes are developed in the abdomen but in the foetal stage, they get transferred to the scrotum. The hormones that are produced by them are called the androgen hormone. It is not necessary that only testes will produce hormones and they are present only in males, some amount of testosterone is even present in the female and that is responsible for giving some male-like characteristics. Dihydrotestosterone or testosterone is the major androgen. In this article, we will learn about what androgen means in detail.
Sertoli cells are present in the testis. They help in the secretion of dihydrotestosterone. The function of Sertoli cells are:
The parts that are absorbed by the spermatozoa are absorbed by these Sertoli cells.
They release anti-mullerian factors. These factors prevent oviduct development in males.
The blood-testis barrier is formed by the androgen.
Androgen-binding protein is released by these Sertoli cells.
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The testes are the primary sex organs and they also act as endocrine glands. As they function like endocrine glands, they can be called adrenal androgens. Seminiferous tubules are present in the testes. Interstitial and stromal tissues are also present in the testes. The process of formation of sperms is achieved by the seminiferous tubules. This helps in fulfilling the function of primary sex organs. Inside the seminiferous tubules, we have the Leydig cells and interstitial cells and these are present inside the spaces of seminiferous tubules. Androgen is steroid hormones that are produced by these Leydig cells and interstitial cells. Dihydrotestosterone is one of the major androgens. The luteinizing hormone influences the Leydig cells to secrete testosterone.
The Functions of the Androgen Hormone Are:
Muscular growth is stimulated by the androgens.
It helps in the male pattern of the external genitalia.
These androgens act on the androgens and they help in influencing male sexual behaviour.
Spermatogenesis is the process by which sperms are formed and these androgens help in stimulating that process.
The male accessory sex organs are developed with the help of these androgens.
Acne on the face is known as androgen acne.
Testosterone is the strongest androgen and estrogen is a natural anti androgen.
The testes are descended with the help of testosterone.
It helps in the male pattern of development.
It helps in developing male sexual characteristics.
It helps in the maintenance of male sexual characteristics.
The process of spermatogenesis is stimulated by testosterone
They help in a growth spurt.
The ovaries produce estrogen. It can function as an anti androgen hormone. When the androgens or the testosterone is not present in sufficient quantities, then we face some issues.
Eunuchoidism: This condition is seen when there is no testes secretion. When this condition occurs, then secondary sex organs such as the penis and testes remain small and dysfunctional. The sperms are also produced. Some secondary sexual characteristics such as beard and moustaches are also not present in these types of males.
Gynaecomastia: When breast tissues are developed in males then this condition is known as gynecomastia. This condition is developed when the androgen and estrogen hormones are not present in proper ratios as they are required by the body. Sometimes when there is a decrease in the amount of testosterone even then this condition can occur. The removal of testis from the males can also result in this condition. Dheas PCOS (dehydro epi androsterone)hormone is present in the ovary of the females. Estrogen is one of the strongest natural anti androgens.
It Occurs in Four Stages:
Spermatocytogenesis: The spermatogonia present on the wall of the seminiferous tubules multiply by mitotic division and increase in numbers. Each spermatogonium is a diploid containing 46 chromosomes.
Meiosis-I: A primary spermatocyte is diploid with 44+ XY chromosomes. It completes the primary meiotic division resulting in the formation of two equal, haploid cells called secondary spermatocytes which have 23 chromosomes.
Meiosis-II: In this stage, the spermatids are reduced to 23 in number.
Spermiogenesis: By the end of spermiogenesis, 4 haploid sperms are produced.
1. What Are the Three Neurotransmitters That Play a Major Role in the Development of the Brain at Adolescence Times?
Answer: The three neurotransmitters that play a major role in the development of the brain are glutamate, dopamine and serotonin. The hormone glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter and is associated with the functions in the synaptic cleft. This neurotransmitter helps in bringing synaptic balance in the brain of the individual. The hormone dopamine is associated with pleasure. It also helps in influencing the decision making ability of the individual. The levels of dopamine also increase in the limbic system. Serotonin is responsible for the regulation of the behaviour and mood of the individual. The changes in levels of dopamine and serotonin are responsible for making the emotional quotient of the individual.
2. What are Changes Induced by Sex Hormones in the Male and Female Body?
Answer: The changes that are introduced by sex hormones are:
The breast size increases and the hips get more curved.
Sex hormones are secreted by the hypothalamus that is triggered by the release of hormones from the pituitary.
The testes release the testosterone hormone and the ovaries release the estrogen hormone.
Facial hairs in males start appearing. Soon these hairs started growing on the chin and the upper part of the lip. In males, the major landmark of the start of adolescence is the first ejaculation that is known as spermarche and in females, it is the release of the egg that is known as menarche.