What is Piperazine?

The chemical structure of piperazine is C4H10N2. It is the organic compound, which is consist of six membrane ring with the presence of two opposite nitrogen atom. Piperazine is an anthelmintic drug and they are mainly used for the treatment of intestinal roundworm infections in domestic animals and human beings and also can treat pinworm infections in human beings.

The physician usually suggests piperazine citrate for treating disease. The intake of piperazine will act on the worms and they are paralyzed and eliminated through the stool. 

Chemical Structure of Piperazine

Piperazine can be freely soluble in ethylene glycol and water. But they remain insoluble in diethyl ether. Piperazine is a weak base component, which has two pKbs of 5.35 and 9.73 at 25 °C. The 10% of piperazine present in the aqueous solution will have a pH between 10.8–11.8. Piperazine can absorb carbon dioxide and water from the air. Many piperazines are occurring in nature in various forms. Also, piperazine can synthesize by reacting alcoholic ammonia with 1,2-dichloroethane or by the action of ethylene glycol and sodium on ethylene diamine hydrochloride or by reducing pyrazine with the presence of sodium in ethanol. 


A form of piperazine is commonly available in industries in the form of hexahydrate C4H10N2. 6H2O.  The piperazine used in industries has a melting point of 44°C and it can boil at 125–130°C. 


Usually, piperazine is available in the form of two common salts.  The piperazine citrate uses are predominant for pharmaceutical and veterinary purposes.  The chemical structure of citrate of piperazine is 3C4H10N2.2C6H8O7. Citrate contains 3 molecules of piperazine to 2 molecules of citric acid. The chemical structure of adipate is C4H10N2.C6H10O4. Adipate contains 1 molecule of piperazine and adipic acid.  


Piperazine can synthesize with the co-product of the ammoniation of 1,2-dichloroethane or ethanolamine. These are the only routes for the using in commercial industries. The piperazine are usually separated from the product stream, which contains, ethylenediamine, diethylenetriamine, and other related cyclic and linear chemicals 

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Piperazine Uses in Medicine Field 

Piperazine belongs to the anthelmintics medicine family. These anthelmintics medicines are mainly used for the treatment of worm infections.  These include the infections caused by common roundworms like ascariasis and pinworms like enterobiasis and oxyuriasis. When the piperazine enters the human body, it starts work to paralyze the worms and it will dispose of in the stool. The dosage of piperazine should be determined by the physician. 

Side Effects Due to Piperazine Citrate Uses 

The prolonged piperazine citrate uses can create some side effects. Some serious illnesses may need some medical attention. At the initial stage, the piperazine uses creates illness like blurring of vision, crawling or tingling feeling of the skin, clumsiness, fever, joints pain, irregular, twisting movement in the face, legs, and arms, skin rashes, or itching. In the advanced stage, it causes stomach or abdominal cramps or pain, dizziness, headache, muscle weakness, tremors, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness..etc. People may experience these side effects during the treatment or after the completion of treatment. 

Other Uses of Piperazine 

Piperazines are widely used for the manufacture of plastics, pesticides,  resins, brake fluid, and other industrial materials. Piperazine is also used as the fluid for  H2S and  CO2 scrubbing in addition to methyl diethanolamine

Piperazine in Carbon Capture and Storage

Amine blends are activated by concentrated piperazine and are extensively used for the removal of CO2  for carbon capture and storage (CCS).  This piperazine allows for protection from significant thermal and oxidative degradation at typical coal flue gas conditions. The thermal degradation for piperazine and methyl diethanolamine (MDEA) is negligible. This increased stability of MDEA/PZ solvent blend over the MDEA and other amine solvents will provide greater capacity and requires minimum work to capture CO2


The solubility of piperazine is low. So, a relatively small amount is used to supplement other amine solvents.  The performance of one or more piperazines is often compromised due to their low concentration.  The addition of piperazine to amine gas is treating solvents and it shows, CO2 absorption, heat absorption, and solvent capacity have increased. These will give typical amine-based absorption processes, which run at temperatures from  45 °C to 55 °C. As the capability of piperazine is within this limit, it supports carbon capture. The piperazine can thermally regenerate with the help of multi-stage flash distillation and other methods, which has operating temperatures up to  150 °C, also it can be recycled back in the absorption process by providing high energy during amine gas treating processes.


The main advantage of using concentrated piperazine (CPZ) is its additive process. The uses of concentrated piperazine are more reactive and thermally stable in the standard MEA solutions. They are cost-efficient and can regenerate at high temperatures. 


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FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. Can Humans Take Piperazine?

Ans: Piperazine is also known as hexahydropyrazine. The chemical structure of piperazine is C4H10N2. Piperazine is an anthelmintic drug, which is mainly used for the treatment of intestinal roundworm infection in human beings and domestic animals, it includes poultry and pinworm infection in human beings. It is used to treat orally with repeated doses, and it is usually taken as citrate salt. 

Q2.what are the Side Effects of Piperazine?

Ans: The prolonged use of piperazine may produce side effects as, blurring of vision, crawling or tingling feeling of the skin, joint pain, irregular, twisting movement especially in the arms, face, and legs, skin rashes or itching, and clumsiness. 

Q3. Which Drug Contains Piperazine Ring?

Ans: Piperazine drugs are usually used to treat the infections caused by roundworm and pinworm. Piperazine is an organic compound, which consists of a six-membered ring with the presence of two opposing nitrogen atoms.  Piperazine is initially used as a solvent of uric acid. In 1953, piperazine was first introduced to use as an anthelmintic agent. Usually, piperazine is a weak base with two pKbs of 5.35 and 9.73 at 25 °C. The aqueous solution contains 10% of piperazine stands at a pH of 10.8–11.8. Likewise, piperazine can absorbs water and carbon dioxide from the air.