Metabolic Disease

What is Metabolic Disease?

Let's look at the definition of metabolic disease. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of conditions that increase your risk of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. High blood pressure, high blood sugar, excess body fat around the waist, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels are examples of these conditions.

Simply having one of these conditions does not imply you have metabolic syndrome. However, it does increase your chances of contracting a serious disease. And as you develop more of these conditions, your risk of complications such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease increases.

Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common, with up to one-third of adults in the United States suffering from it. If you have metabolic syndrome or any of its components, making drastic lifestyle changes can postpone or even prevent the onset of serious health problems.


Symptoms

The majority of metabolic syndrome-related disorders have no obvious signs or symptoms. A large waist circumference is one visible sign. If your blood sugar is high, you may experience diabetes symptoms such as increased thirst and urination, fatigue, and blurred vision.


Serious Symptoms that Might Indicate a Life-Threatening Condition

Metabolic disorders can be deadly in some cases. Seek immediate medical attention (call 911) if you or someone you're with has any of the following life-threatening symptoms:

  • Lips or fingernails that are bluish in colour

  • Confusion, delirium, lethargy, hallucinations, and delusions are all symptoms of a change in mental status or a sudden change in behaviour.

  • Shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, laboured breathing, wheezing, not breathing, and choking are examples of respiratory or breathing problems and seizure.


Causes

Overweight or obesity, as well as inactivity, are all risk factors for metabolic syndrome.

It has also been linked to a condition known as insulin resistance. Normally, your digestive system converts the foods you consume into sugar. Insulin is a hormone produced by your pancreas that aids in the entry of sugar into your cells for use as fuel.

Insulin resistance occurs when cells do not respond normally to insulin and glucose cannot enter the cells as easily. As a result, your blood sugar levels rise even as your body produces more and more insulin in an attempt to lower them.


Risk Factors

The following factors that are listed below are responsible for the increase in the likelihood of developing metabolic syndrome:

  1. Age is a factor. As you get older, your chances of developing metabolic syndrome rise. A person's ethnicity. Hispanics, particularly Hispanic women, appear to be at the highest risk of developing metabolic syndrome in the United States. 

  2. Obesity is a problem. Carrying too much weight, particularly in your abdomen, raises your chances of developing metabolic syndrome. 

  3. Diabetes is a disease that affects the body' If you had gestational diabetes or if you have a family history of type 2 diabetes, you are more likely to have metabolic syndrome.

  4. Other illnesses. If you've ever had nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, polycystic ovary syndrome, or sleep apnea, you're more likely to develop metabolic syndrome.


Prevention

A lifetime commitment to a healthy lifestyle may help to prevent the conditions that lead to metabolic syndrome. A healthy lifestyle consists of the following elements:

  1. Getting at least thirty minutes of physical activity most day.

  2. Consuming an abundance of vegetables, fruits, lean protein, and whole grains.

  3. Limiting your intake of saturated fat and salt

  4. Keeping a healthy weight

  5. Smoking cessation


Fructose Metabolism and Metabolic Disease

Fructose-rich diets can quickly produce all of the key features of metabolic syndrome. The biology of fructose metabolism, as well as potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose consumption may contribute to cardiometabolic disease, are discussed in this article.


Carbohydrate Metabolism


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Carbohydrate metabolism is a fundamental biochemical process that ensures living cells have an endless supply of energy. Glucose is the most important carbohydrate, and it can be broken down via glycolysis and used to generate ATP via the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

Improper carbohydrate metabolism causes a variety of diseases. Diabetes mellitus is caused by a lack of or resistance to insulin, which results in hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia. Lactose intolerance is a common adult allergy caused by a lack of the enzyme lactase, which converts lactose disaccharides (found in dairy products) into glucose monosaccharides. Congenital mutations in enzymes involved in glucose metabolic pathways cause much rarer diseases such as galactosemia and von Gierke's diseases.


Amino Acid Metabolism


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Protein metabolism encompasses the various biochemical processes involved in protein and amino acid synthesis, as well as protein catabolism. Transcription, translation, and post-translational modifications are all steps in protein synthesis.


Fat Metabolism


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Lipid metabolism is the synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells, which includes the breakdown or storage of fats for energy as well as the synthesis of structural and functional lipids, such as those which are involved in cell membrane construction. These fats are obtained from food or synthesised by the liver in animals.


Fructose Metabolism


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  1. Fructose is a common sugar found in the human diet.

  2. This dietary monosaccharide occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables as free fructose or as a component of the disaccharide sucrose, as well as its polymer inulin.

  3. Sucrose (table sugar) is a disaccharide that hydrolyzes to produce fructose and glucose.

  4. The breakdown of fructose from dietary sources is known as fructolysis.


Glucose Metabolism


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Glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and glycogenesis are all processes involved in glucose metabolism. Glycolysis is a process that occurs in the liver and involves a number of enzymes that promote glucose catabolism in cells. Glucose metabolism involves two distinct pathways: one anaerobic and one aerobic. The anaerobic process, which takes place in the cytoplasm, is only moderately efficient. The aerobic cycle occurs in the mitochondria and results in the greatest energy release.

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

1. What are Some Metabolic Diseases Examples?

Answer: Some examples of metabolic diseases are - 

  • Familial hypercholesterolemia.

  • Gaucher disease.

  • Hunter syndrome.

  • Krabbe disease.

  • Maple syrup urine disease.

  • Metachromatic leukodystrophy.

  • Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like episodes (MELAS)

  • Niemann-Pick.

2. What Does Glucose Metabolism Begin With?

Answer: Glucose, a six-carbon sugar, is broken down into smaller sugars in the cells, and the energy stored inside the molecule is released. The first step in carbohydrate catabolism is glycolysis, which results in the production of pyruvate, NADH, and ATP.