Mammalian ovary is a reproductive organ in females inside which sex cells like eggs or ova are produced. The ovaries come in pairs and prudence hormones in addition to sex cells. The male reproductive organ has two primary structures. A pair of testes and some accessory reproductive structures. Adult mammalian testes perform two essential functions.
There are sperms present in the body of a male organism while the female organisms consist of ovaries that are developed. Both of these gametes help in the production of the zygote which then turns into the baby of that particular organism. But learning the stages that are involved in the gamete development is very important in order to understand the functioning that is involved. The Identification of Stages of Gamete Development - Biology Practicals helps students to learn about the same and understand how it works before actually learning more about the zygote. The overall growth and development of the testes and ovaries are governed by the urogenital system. The urinary system and the genital system are two completely different systems that are independent of each other.
The difference between a gamete and a gametophyte can be provided as follows:
Every mammalian ovary is a reproductive organ in females inside which sex cells like eggs or ova are produced. The ovaries come in pairs and prudence hormones in addition to sex cells. These hormones trigger the process of reproduction in females. While ovaries are the primary reproductive organs in females, the male counterparts have a primary reproductive organ known as testes. Each ovary consists of an outer cortex that contains follicles, interstitial cells, and oocytes. There is also an inner medulla which contains fibrous tissues, blood vessels and nerves. The T.S.of the mammalian ovary or transverse section of the ovary is studied and identified through experimental slides.
Aim: To study and identify the T.S. Of mammalian ovaries under permanent slides.
Apparatus: Permanent slides of T.S. or transverse section of the ovary, microscope
Observation: Any mammalian ovary has a solid structure to it and is bounded by epithelium along with a thick layer of fibrous tissue, also known as tunica albuginea. The ovary has an outer cortex and an inner medulla. The T.S.of the mammalian ovary reveals the rounded oval bodies, also known as ovarian follicles.
The follicles develop from stage 1 to Graffian follicles to corpus luteum. The development of the follicles is the necessary study of the transverse section of an ovary.
The male reproductive organ has two primary structures. A pair of testes and some accessory reproductive structures. Adult mammalian testes perform two essential functions. The first is spermatogenesis, and the second is male sex hormone production. The main male hormone produced in the testis is testosterone. There are a few common diseases linked with the testes such as testicular cancer, testicular trauma, infertility issues, swelling, hypogonadism and more. All these diseases are linked with bruising, clotting and severe pain.
Aim: To study and identify the T.S. Of mammalian ovaries under a microscope through permanent slides.
Apparatus: Permanent slides of T.S. or transverse section of the testis, microscope
Observation: Same as that of the T.S. of the mammalian ovary, the T.S. of mammalian testis also has a thick fibrous tissue covering it known as tunica albuginea. Tubules are present inside the interstitial tissues. The formation of gametes in the T.S. of mammalian testis starts from Spermatogonia to Spermatozoa. This last stage is sperm formation. The majority of the sperms have Sertoli cells embedded in them.
Make sure to wear laboratory gloves.
Use forceps and other instruments while handling the organs.
Make sure the focus of the microscopic lens is adjusted well enough.
Once the experiment is over, store the slides carefully and clean the microscopic lens.
All of the experiments mentioned above are performed by using the transverse section of the testis and transverse section of an ovary of mice and grasshoppers. The anatomy of the two organs remains the same for all mammals.
Difference Between Testis and Ovary.
The Difference Between Testis and Ovary is Mentioned as Follows:
Functions of Testis and Ovary
Both the testes and the ovaries produce sperms and ova in the males and females respectively. Along with these feet also produce hormones required for reproduction.
Ovaries are gray-pinkish in color. A woman’s ovaries are capable of holding millions of eggs at a time.
The size of the ovaries changes along with the maturity of a female body.
During the reproductive phase, the ovaries become more significant in size.
Once a woman reaches menopause, the uterus holds only 400-500 eggs which are not suitable for fertilization anymore.
The eggs are fertilized inside the ovary during the reproductive phase.
1. What is the Function of an Ovary in the Human Body?
The ovary is the primary reproductive organ in females. It releases an ovum which travels down the Fallopian tube and into the uterus. It is in the uterus that the egg gets fertilized by a sperm. Another very important function of the ovaries in the human body is the secretion of two hormones, namely, estrogen and progesterone. The hormones are useful for the development of the human body and the various female characteristics. Ovulation is the process during which the ovaries release eggs. Often stress and other factors may lead to irregular menstrual cycles that delay the process of ovulation.
2. What are the Different Diseases Linked with the Female Ovary?
The main problems or diseases associated with the ovary are cysts. The polycystic ovary syndrome popularly referred to as PCOS is a hormonal disorder causing the ovary to enlarge and have small cysts on the outer edge. The underlying cause of this disease is unknown, but a few genetic factors and even some environmental factors may also lead to this disease. The symptoms of this disease are irregular menstruation, spotting, heavy or light bleeding at irregular periods, oily skin, acne, dark patches on the head and even loss of hair. Some PCOS patients are said to have experienced obesity and excess body hair growth too.
3. What are the objectives of learning about the Identification of Stages of Gamete Development - Biology Practicals?
The objective learning about the Identification of Stages of Gamete Development can be provided as follows:
It helps to identify and differentiate the gross structure of the male reproductive system and female reproductive system in rats through images or models that have been prepared in advance.
It helps students to check under the microscope and describe the histological structures of both testes and ovaries.
It helps students in the understanding of the various stages of growth of sperms from the given slides of testes in rats.
Helps in understanding the growth of ova from the given histological slide of rat’s ovary.
4. How to do an effective study of Identification of Stages of Gamete Development?
In order to effectively learn more about the Identification of Stages of Gamete Development, it is important to understand the unit 6 urinogenital system which has the basic theory regarding the reproductive system in both humans and animals. With the help of this practical, it is easy to learn more about the reproductive system of rats and how the Stages of Gamete Development take place. Apart from observing and Identification of Stages of Gamete Development students will also need to note down what they observed and how the development took place.
5. What does the male urogenital system of rats consist of?
The male urogenital system starts with a pair of testes that has been lodged extra-abdominally in the scrotal pouch. There are several seminiferous tubules that are present in the testes which contain Sertoli’s cells and have a large number of sperms being developed. The epididymis which is the C-shaped organ is one that embraces the testis. It has three portions: the caput, the corpus, and the cauda. The urethra consists of the urinary bladder and the sperms from the vas deferens. Thus it is a common page for both. The urethra continues to the outside as an extension of the phallus or penis.
6. What does the female urogenital system of rats consist of?
The female urogenital system will start with a pair of ovaries which is situated in the pelvic cavity below the kidneys. They are enclosed in a thin membrane which is called the periovarian sac. They have no internal dust system and hence the ova or gametes are released by rupturing. These ova will be picked by the fallopian tube which is white In color tightly coiled and connected to the uterus. The uterus then leads to the cervix and the last segment is the vagina which opens outside through the genital orifice or vulva.
7. What are the hormones that are secreted by testes and ovaries? Is there a detailed study on the rat’s internal system available on Vedantu?
The hormones that are secreted by the testes and ovaries are both different and these help in the regulation of sperm growth and ova development. The hormone that is secreted by the testes is called testosterone while the one that is secreted by ovaries will be termed estrogen. To learn more about these hormones and rats’ internal system students can also access the Vedantu NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology that covers the entire matter and concepts that are involved.