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Pre Fertilization Structures And Events

MVSAT Dec 2023

Reproduction is the reason for all of us to be here. It has been going on from generations to generations. We, humans, carry with us heredity from one generation to the next. Simultaneously, we have been evolving as a species over time. We know these facts. So what are we here to learn today? The topic is gametogenesis. You might have heard about fertilization and how the process of reproduction takes place when it comes to the plant or animal kingdom. But are you aware of the process that occurs before that? That’s what we are here to talk about.


Gametogenesis Definition

To define gametogenesis, you can say that it is the biological process that takes place in living organism cells to form gametes. The reproduction in the species would then be possible due to gamete transfer that would occur when the said organisms have grown to a particular stage.


The process of gametogenesis takes place when meiosis occurs in cells so that they can form gametes. Now, what are gametes? They are the reproductive cells with the help of which an organism can carry out the process of reproduction. Just to be clear, gametogenesis and reproduction are two very different processes and they do not have the same meaning. 


Meaning of Gametogenesis

The gametogenesis process involves the formation of reproductive cells or sex cells in living organisms. In plants, it is carried out via mitosis whereas, in animals, it is carried out via meiosis. The formation of male gametes and the formation of female gametes are the two basic steps that take place during gametogenesis. 


Based on the living organism, the process of gametogenesis occurs in:-

  • Plants: It takes place by the meiotic division of diploid gametocytes. In higher plants, it takes place along with sporogenesis. 

  • Animals: It takes place by meiosis where gametes are formed from their diploid mother cells present in organs called gonads. 


Stages of Gametogenesis

The process of gametogenesis occurs in three steps. They are as follows;

  • Mitotic divisions along with cell growth of precursor germ cells.

  • The occurrence of Meiosis I and Meiosis II for producing haploid daughter cells.

  • Differentiating haploid daughter cells for the production of functional gametes. 

These steps are responsible for the formation of male and female gametes. 


Types of Gametogenesis

To define gametogenesis in animals, you can say that it takes place in a species that depends on a sexual reproduction system. Such species rely on gamete transfer for fertilization to take place. Now, in sexually reproducing species, two sexes are classified as males and females. The process of male gametogenesis is quite different from female gametogenesis. Let’s have a look at how they occur.


  • Spermatogenesis:- It is the process of gametogenesis in males. The process describes the production of spermatozoa or sperm in the seminiferous tubules male reproductive organ.

  • Oogenesis:- It is the process of gametogenesis in females. The process describes the production of ova (female gamete) within the ovaries. The process starts during the fetal development itself when around 40,000 primordial cells are formed due to mitosis.

Gametogenesis biology explains that it is the process that results in the formation of diploid cells (2n) from a haploid cell (n) via meiosis and cell differentiation. To define gametogenesis is to define the science that makes fertilization possible.


Female gametogenesis in humans as well as female gametogenesis in plants is a part of the sexual reproduction system that would need gamete transfer for fertilization to take place. As per the gametogenesis definition, it is an important process that takes place. If there is no gametogenesis, there wouldn’t be the formation of gametes. 


Due to that, gamete transfer would not be possible, and due to which fertilization and reproduction won’t take place.


When it comes to gametogenesis definition biology, its occurrence in both plant and animal kingdom is addressed to. You can also define gametogenesis as the stage at which diploid cells turn into mature gametes.


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Gametogenesis Process

Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid functional spermatozoa are formed from diploid germinal cells of seminiferous tubules. This process begins in the body throughout adolescence. It is divided into four phases, which are as follows:

a. Multiplication phase

b. Growth phase

c. Maturation

d. Spermiogenesis

Females begin producing eggs before they give birth. Oogonia forms throughout the development of the fetus, passing through mitosis and generating primary oocytes. It occurs in the following stages, namely:

a. Multiplication phase

b. Growth phase

c. Maturation

Significance of Gametogenesis

Gametogenesis is the process by which gametes or germ cells are produced in sexually reproducing animals. Meiosis is the process through which germ cells or gametes are created. Gametogenesis is a biological process that helps in the formation of gametes during the meiotic process. Gametes are haploid cells that, following fertilization, generate a diploid cell termed a zygote. The zygote is the first stage in the creation of a distinct entity, which aids in generational continuity.

Key Points to Remember

  • The process of meiosis is responsible for gametogenesis, or the generation of sperm and eggs.

  • In oogenesis, Diploid oogonium proceeds through mitosis until one develops into a primary oocyte, which will start the first meiotic division but then halt; It will complete this division as it develops in the follicle, producing a haploid secondary oocyte and a smaller polar body.

  • The secondary oocyte starts the second meiotic division and then stops; it will not continue this division until fertilized by a sperm; if this happens, a mature ovum and another polar body are generated. 

  • In spermatogenesis, Diploid spermatogonia go through mitosis until they start to grow into gametes; in time, one develops into a primary spermatocyte, which then passes through the first meiotic division to produce two haploid secondary spermatocytes.

  • The secondary spermatocytes will go through a second meiotic division to each create two spermatids; these cells will eventually develop flagella and become mature sperm.

Fun Fact

Did you know that in the process of gametogenesis, for gamete transfer to take place successfully, certain factors play an important role? They are as listed below;

  • The number of cells produced.

  • The size of the cells produced.

  • The timing of the process. 

One thing that you should know about gametogenesis is that it occurs in males when they reach puberty and it occurs in females before their birth and continues with the onset of puberty. It stops when menopause occurs. You can describe gametogenesis as the preparation that is needed for a particular action to be executed.


In embryology, gametogenesis is the mechanism used by an organism to generate its gametes, or germ cells. Gametogenesis is a complex process involving a variety of metabolic processes and morphological modifications. A perticular type of cell replication, known as Meiosis, produces these sex cells. The gametes that follow, have half the genetic information of the parent cells and are also distinct from both the parent cells and from each other.

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FAQs on Gametogenesis

1. What are the differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?

During meiosis, the cells in spermatogenesis divide evenly to generate four functioning gametes. During oogenesis, cells do not divide evenly, resulting in the formation of only one functioning gamete.

  • In spermatogenesis, the cells that develop after differentiation are all the same size and contain the same quantity of cytoplasm. One daughter cell (the ovum) preserves all of the cytoplasms throughout oogenesis, whereas the other daughter cells develop polar bodies. 

  • The production of gametes in spermatogenesis is a continuous process that begins in puberty and can last until death. The creation of gametes in oogenesis is a staggered and finite process: It starts before birth with the development of a certain number of primary oocytes. It continues with the start of puberty, which is governed by a monthly menstrual cycle. It comes to an end when hormonal changes stop the menstrual cycle from continuing.

2. What are the stages for the Creation of Spermatids?

This procedure is divided into three stages:

Multiplication Phase: Mitosis happens numerous times during sexual maturity, resulting in the division of indistinguishable primordial germ cells. This is primarily for the purpose of producing a high number of spermatogonia. There are two types of these: type A and type B. Type A spermatogonia serve as stem cells, dividing to produce more spermatogonia. Male sex cells can be regarded as prototypes of Type B spermatogonia. 

Growth Phase: Every type B spermatogonia evolves dynamically to create a superior primary spermatocyte thanks to feeding on nursing cells.

Maturation Phase: The initial spermatocyte divides into two stages. These are known as maturation divisions, and meiotic is the first maturation disunion. As a result, the original spermatocyte divides into two haploid daughter cells known as secondary spermatocytes. Both secondary spermatocytes undergo a second maturation separation, which is a normal mitotic division. It results in the production of four haploid spermatids.

3. How can I download more study material for the chapter Gametogenesis for Biology?

Vedantu provides everything a student requires to prepare for the exam. The most recent grading scale and exam format were used to develop these study resources. You may download the material by clicking on the PDF link provided on the page, or you can download the Vedantu app to obtain the solutions for a single chapter. These PDFs are also useful for reviewing the topic before any competitive or entrance tests. The information was created by subject matter specialists with extensive expertise, and it is available on Vedantu's official website to clear up any doubt. Visit the Vedantu website and download the PDF version to acquire study materials for this Biology chapter.

4. Explain Gametogenesis

It is the process by which the diploid precursor cells undergo meiotic division to form sex cells or haploid gametes. As per the gametogenesis definition, this process is known as spermatogenesis when it occurs in males and is known as oogenesis when it occurs in females. Spermatogenesis produces spermatozoa and oogenesis produces ova. 

This process takes place in the gonads or the reproductive organs of both the sexes. It is the step that makes fertilization and reproduction possible. It occurs both in plants and animals. In plants as well, this process leads to the formation of gametes that are crucial for fertilization to take place.

5. Define Gametogenesis.

As per the gametogenesis definition, it is the process that helps in the formation of male and female gametes. However, the process is different when it occurs in males and females respectively. In males, it is known as spermatogenesis and in females, it is known as oogenesis.

Spermatogenesis occurs in males when they reach puberty and they can produce around 200 million sperms a day. Oogenesis, on the other hand, occurs in females before their birth and is left with around 40,000 cells by the time they reach puberty. You can define gametogenesis in plants along with sporogenesis as the two stages of the entire process.

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