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How Nutrients are Replenished in the Soil?

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Nutrients: An Introduction

MVSAT 2024

Nutrients are critical for plant growth and reproduction. They are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), boron (B), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) potassium (K), sulfur (S), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and chlorine (Cl). Nutrients required for plant life to finish its existence cycle are considered important vitamins. Nutrients that enhance the increase of plant life however aren't essential to finish the plant's existence cycle are considered non-essential. With the exception of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen which are provided through carbon dioxide and water, and nitrogen supplied through nitrogen fixation, the vitamins derive at the beginning from the mineral factor of the soil.

Nutrition in Plants

Nutrition is the process of conversion of chemicals into light energy and the splitting of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen through light energy. Reducing carbon dioxide through hydrogen makes carbohydrates like glucose by using chemical energy. Nutrients are the additives or components in our meals, including carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, fats, etc. These are the vital components for living organisms to survive.

Plants produce their food on their own but animals and humans do not produce their food on their own. We directly or indirectly rely on plant life and animals for our food. Hence, nutrition in plants is very important for their growth.

Modes of Nutrition

The technique of acquiring meals and using them to grow, live and restore any broken body frame component is called nutrition. Plants produce their food by taking raw substances from their surroundings, which include minerals, carbon dioxide, water and sunlight. There are two modes of nutrition:

  • Autotrophic – Plants exhibit autotrophic nutrition and are known as primary producers. Plants synthesise their meals by using light, carbon dioxide, and water.

  • Heterotrophic – Both animals and humans are known as heterotrophs, as they rely on plant life for food.

Autotrophic Nutrition Definition

  • Plants are capable of producing their own food via a method known as photosynthesis. The chloroplast is the region of photosynthesis.

  • Food manufacturing generally is done in leaves. Water and minerals from the soil are absorbed through the root and transported to the leaves via vessels. Carbon dioxide reaches leaves via stomata – which are small pores present on leaves surrounded by guard cells.

  • Chlorophyll is a green-coloured pigment found in leaves which enables the leaves to seize energy from the sun to prepare their own food. This manufacturing of food that takes place within the sunlight is called the photosynthesis process. Hence, the sun is the primary energy source for all living organisms.

  • During photosynthesis, water and carbon dioxide are used in the presence of daylight to provide carbohydrates and oxygen.

  • Oxygen is one of the primary components of existence on the earth which is released through plant life throughout the photosynthesis process.

  • The Pitcher plant is a plant that is partially autotrophic.

Heterotrophic Nutrition

All animals and non-photosynthetic vegetation are categorised as heterotrophs because they cannot prepare food. So those organisms resort to different numerous types of nutrients. Hence, from an ecological perspective, heterotrophs are usually secondary or tertiary consumers in a food chain.

Humans and different vertebrates depend on changing natural, solid or liquid meals into energy. Other organisms, along with fungi, depend on changing useless organic matter into nutrients. In essence, heterotrophs damage complicated meals into their simple, usable constituents. The mode of nutrition in fungi is heterotrophic nutrition.

Types of Heterotrophic Nutrition

In nature, organisms exhibit diverse styles of heterotrophic nutrients. They are as follows:

  • Holozoic Nutrition

  • Saprophytic Nutrition

  • Parasitic Nutrition

Holozoic Nutrition

Holozoic nutrients entail the ingestion and inner processing of stable and liquid meals in an organism. This includes the various steps like ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and excretion.

Examples of animals that exhibit holozoic nutrients consist of all vertebrates. Even a few unicellular organisms, along with amoeba, additionally exhibit holozoic nutrients.

Saprophytic Nutrition

Saprophytes depend upon dead and decayed organisms for their growth and energy. They are an essential part of the surroundings as they assist in keeping our environment clean and recycle nutrients again into the environment. Some examples of saprophytes are fungi and certain kinds of bacteria. These are also liable for the stealing of bread and different food products. Saprophytes release some enzymes that act on the organic matter to make them simpler. It works by breaking down them into simpler forms, which may be easily fed on by them.

What is Parasitic Nutrition?

Organisms that stay in or on different organisms and accumulate meals at the expense of their host are known as parasites. Most parasites are dangerous to the hosts’ health; sometimes, they kill the host. Both animals and plant life may also function as a host. Unlike commensalism, the parasite causes little damage to its host. A few examples of parasites are louse on a human head, Cuscuta plant and tapeworms.

Cymothoa exigua is an uncommon parasite. It is likewise called the tongue-ingesting louse and is aptly named in the order it is observed within the mouth of the marine fish Lithognathus. It severs the fish’s tongue, reducing the blood supply and causing the tongue to fall off. The louse then attaches itself to the status of the tongue and acts as the fish’s new tongue.

Interesting Facts

  • Plants and trees are triangular in shape as they need more sunlight for the photosynthesis process.

  • Fixating atmospheric carbon dioxide into simple sugar using sunlight is the major source of plant nutrition.

  • Like humans and animals, plants also need 2 types of nutrients that are macronutrients and micronutrients.

Key Features

  • Plants require water, sunlight, carbon dioxide, and chlorophyll to prepare food.

  • Plants need energy as humans and animals need.

  • Nutrients are essential for the growth and development of plants.

  • Both macronutrients and micronutrients are necessary for plants to grow.

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FAQs on How Nutrients are Replenished in the Soil?

1. What do you mean by chemosynthetic heterotrophs?

The organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of glucose during the process of respiration are chemosynthetic heterotrophs because they use chemical processes to obtain energy for their growth.

2. How many nutrients are there in plants?

Scientists identified 16 important nutrients in plants that are grouped into primary and secondary nutrients.

3. In which form do plants prepare their food?

Plants prepare their food in the form of starch.


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